Class: GeographicItem

Inherits:
ApplicationRecord show all
Includes:
Housekeeping::Timestamps, Housekeeping::Users, Shared::HasPapertrail, Shared::IsData, Shared::SharedAcrossProjects
Defined in:
app/models/geographic_item.rb

Overview

A GeographicItem is one and only one of [point, line_string, polygon, multi_point, multi_line_string, multi_polygon, geometry_collection] which describes a position, path, or area on the globe, generally associated with a geographic_area (through a geographic_area_geographic_item entry), and sometimes only with a georeference.

Key methods in this giant library

‘#geo_object` - return a RGEO object representation

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: GeometryCollection, LineString, MultiLineString, MultiPoint, MultiPolygon, Point, Polygon

Constant Summary collapse

DATA_TYPES =
[
  :point,
  :line_string,
  :polygon,
  :multi_point,
  :multi_line_string,
  :multi_polygon,
  :geometry_collection
].freeze
GEOMETRY_SQL =
Arel::Nodes::Case.new(arel_table[:type])
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPolygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Point').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::LineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Polygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiLineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPoint').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::GeometryCollection').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:geometry_collection].as('geometry')]))
.freeze
GEOGRAPHY_SQL =
"CASE geographic_items.type
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN geometry_collection
END".freeze
ANTI_MERIDIAN =

ANTI_MERIDIAN = ‘0X0102000020E61000000200000000000000008066400000000000405640000000000080664000000000004056C0’

'LINESTRING (180 89.0, 180 -89)'.freeze

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Attributes included from Housekeeping::Users

#by

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Shared::IsData

#errors_excepting, #full_error_messages_excepting, #identical, #is_community?, #is_destroyable?, #is_editable?, #is_in_use?, #is_in_users_projects?, #metamorphosize, #similar

Methods included from Shared::HasPapertrail

#attribute_updated, #attribute_updater

Methods included from Housekeeping::Timestamps

#data_breakdown_for_chartkick_recent

Methods included from Housekeeping::Users

#set_created_by_id, #set_updated_by_id

Methods inherited from ApplicationRecord

transaction_with_retry

Instance Attribute Details

#cached_total_areaNumeric

Returns if polygon-based the value of the enclosed area in square meters.

Returns:

  • (Numeric)

    if polygon-based the value of the enclosed area in square meters



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# File 'app/models/geographic_item.rb', line 40

class GeographicItem < ApplicationRecord
  include Housekeeping::Users
  include Housekeeping::Timestamps
  include Shared::HasPapertrail
  include Shared::IsData
  include Shared::SharedAcrossProjects

  # @return [Hash, nil]
  #   An internal variable for use in super calls, holds a Hash in GeoJSON format (temporarily)
  attr_accessor :geometry

  # @return [Boolean, RGeo object]
  # @params value [Hash in GeoJSON format] ?!
  # TODO: WHY! boolean not nil, or object
  # Used to build geographic items from a shape [ of what class ] !?
  attr_accessor :shape

  # @return [Boolean]
  #   When true cached values are not built
  attr_accessor :no_cached

  DATA_TYPES = [
:point,
:line_string,
:polygon,
:multi_point,
:multi_line_string,
:multi_polygon,
:geometry_collection
  ].freeze

  GEOMETRY_SQL = Arel::Nodes::Case.new(arel_table[:type])
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPolygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Point').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::LineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Polygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiLineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPoint').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::GeometryCollection').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:geometry_collection].as('geometry')]))
.freeze

  GEOGRAPHY_SQL = "CASE geographic_items.type
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN geometry_collection
END".freeze

# ANTI_MERIDIAN = '0X0102000020E61000000200000000000000008066400000000000405640000000000080664000000000004056C0'
ANTI_MERIDIAN = 'LINESTRING (180 89.0, 180 -89)'.freeze

has_many :cached_map_items, inverse_of: :geographic_item

has_many :geographic_areas_geographic_items, dependent: :destroy, inverse_of: :geographic_item
has_many :geographic_areas, through: :geographic_areas_geographic_items
has_many :asserted_distributions, through: :geographic_areas
has_many :geographic_area_types, through: :geographic_areas
has_many :parent_geographic_areas, through: :geographic_areas, source: :parent

has_many :georeferences, inverse_of: :geographic_item
has_many :georeferences_through_error_geographic_item,
  class_name: 'Georeference', foreign_key: :error_geographic_item_id, inverse_of: :error_geographic_item
has_many :collecting_events_through_georeferences, through: :georeferences, source: :collecting_event
has_many :collecting_events_through_georeference_error_geographic_item,
  through: :georeferences_through_error_geographic_item, source: :collecting_event

# TODO: THIS IS NOT GOOD
before_validation :set_type_if_geography_present

validate :some_data_is_provided
validates :type, presence: true # not needed

scope :include_collecting_event, -> { includes(:collecting_events_through_georeferences) }
scope :geo_with_collecting_event, -> { joins(:collecting_events_through_georeferences) }
scope :err_with_collecting_event, -> { joins(:georeferences_through_error_geographic_item) }

after_save :set_cached, unless: Proc.new {|n| n.no_cached || errors.any? }
after_save :align_winding

class << self

  def aliased_geographic_sql(name = 'a')
    "CASE #{name}.type \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN #{name}.multi_polygon \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN #{name}.point \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN #{name}.line_string \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN #{name}.polygon \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN #{name}.multi_line_string \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN #{name}.multi_point \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN #{name}.geometry_collection \
     END"
  end

  def st_union(geographic_item_scope)
    GeographicItem.select("ST_Union(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as collection")
      .where(id: geographic_item_scope.pluck(:id))
  end

  def st_collect(geographic_item_scope)
    GeographicItem.select("ST_Collect(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as collection")
      .where(id: geographic_item_scope.pluck(:id))
  end

  # @return [GeographicItem::ActiveRecord_Relation]
  # @params [Array] array of geographic area ids
  def default_by_geographic_area_ids(geographic_area_ids = [])
    GeographicItem.
      joins(:geographic_areas_geographic_items).
      merge(::GeographicAreasGeographicItem.default_geographic_item_data).
      where(geographic_areas_geographic_items: {geographic_area_id: geographic_area_ids})
  end

  # @param [String] wkt
  # @return [Boolean]
  #   whether or not the wtk intersects with the anti-meridian
  #   !! StrongParams security considerations
  def crosses_anti_meridian?(wkt)
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
      ['SELECT ST_Intersects(ST_GeogFromText(?), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', wkt, ANTI_MERIDIAN]
    ).first.r
  end

  # @param [Integer] ids
  # @return [Boolean]
  #   whether or not any GeographicItem passed intersects the anti-meridian
  #   !! StrongParams security considerations
  #   This is our first line of defense against queries that define multiple shapes, one or
  #   more of which crosses the anti-meridian.  In this case the current TW strategy within the
  #   UI is to abandon the search, and prompt the user to refactor the query.
  def crosses_anti_meridian_by_id?(*ids)
    q1 = ["SELECT ST_Intersects((SELECT single_geometry FROM (#{GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(*ids)}) as " \
          'left_intersect), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', ANTI_MERIDIAN]
    _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['SELECT ST_Intersects((SELECT single_geometry FROM (?) as ' \
                                                        'left_intersect), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(*ids), ANTI_MERIDIAN])
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(q1).first.r
  end

  #
  # SQL fragments
  #

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL select statement that returns the *geometry* for the geographic_item with the specified id
  def select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id)
    "SELECT #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{geographic_item_id}"
  end

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL select statement that returns the geography for the geographic_item with the specified id
  def select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)
    ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_for_conditions, [
      "SELECT #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = ?",
      geographic_item_id])
  end

  # @param [Symbol] choice
  # @return [String]
  #   a fragment returning either latitude or longitude columns
  def lat_long_sql(choice)
    return nil unless [:latitude, :longitude].include?(choice)
    f = "'D.DDDDDD'" # TODO: probably a constant somewhere
    v = (choice == :latitude ? 1 : 2)
    "CASE geographic_items.type
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid" \
  "(geometry_collection::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid(line_string::geometry), " \
  "#{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_polygon::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(point::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(polygon::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_line_string::geometry), #{f} ), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_point::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
END as #{choice}"
  end

  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Integer] distance
  # @return [String]
  def within_radius_of_item_sql(geographic_item_id, distance)
    "ST_DWithin((#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}), (#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)}), #{distance})"
  end


  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Number] distance in meters to grow/shrink the shape (negative allowed)
  # @param [Number] distance (in meters) (positive only?!)
  # @return [String]
  def st_buffer_st_within(geographic_item_id, distance, buffer = 0)
    "ST_DWithin(
    ST_Buffer(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, #{buffer}),
    (#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)}), #{distance}
   )"
  end


  # TODO: 3D is overkill here
  # @param [String] wkt
  # @param [Integer] distance (meters)
  # @return [String]
  # !! This is intersecting
  def intersecting_radius_of_wkt_sql(wkt, distance)
    "ST_DWithin((#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}), ST_Transform( ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', " \
      "4326), 4326), #{distance})"
  end

  # @param [String] wkt
  # @param [Integer] distance (meters)
  # @return [String]
  # !! This is fully covering
  def within_radius_of_wkt_sql(wkt, distance)
    "ST_Covers( ST_Buffer(ST_SetSRID( ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}'), 4326)::geography, #{distance}), (#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}))"
  end

  # @param [String, Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_Contains() function, returns
  #   all geographic items which are contained in the item supplied
  def containing_sql(target_column_name = nil, geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil? || target_column_name.nil?
    "ST_Contains(#{target_column_name}::geometry, (#{geometry_sql(geographic_item_id, source_column_name)}))"
  end

  # @param [String, Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_Contains(), returns
  #   all geographic_items which contain the supplied geographic_item
  def reverse_containing_sql(target_column_name = nil, geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil? || target_column_name.nil?
    "ST_Contains((#{geometry_sql(geographic_item_id, source_column_name)}), #{target_column_name}::geometry)"
  end

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment that represents the geometry of the geographic item specified (which has data in the
  # source_column_name, i.e. geo_object_type)
  def geometry_sql(geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil?
    "select geom_alias_tbl.#{source_column_name}::geometry from geographic_items geom_alias_tbl " \
      "where geom_alias_tbl.id = #{geographic_item_id}"
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
  # @return [String] of SQL
  def is_contained_by_sql(column_name, geographic_item)
    geo_id = geographic_item.id
    geo_type = geographic_item.geo_object_type
    template = '(ST_Contains((select geographic_items.%s::geometry from geographic_items where ' \
      'geographic_items.id = %d), %s::geometry))'
    retval = []
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          retval.push(template % [geo_type, geo_id, column])
        end
      }
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
            retval.push(template % [geo_type, geo_id, column])
          end
        end
      }
    else
      retval = template % [geo_type, geo_id, column_name]
    end
    retval = retval.join(' OR ') if retval.instance_of?(Array)
    retval
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #   a select query that returns a single geometry (column name 'single_geometry' for the collection of ids
  # provided via ST_Collect)
  def st_collect_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    geographic_item_ids.flatten!
    ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_for_conditions, [
      "SELECT ST_Collect(f.the_geom) AS single_geometry
 FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DUMP(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql})).geom as the_geom
    FROM geographic_items
    WHERE id in (?))
  AS f", geographic_item_ids])
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #    returns one or more geographic items combined as a single geometry in column 'single'
  def single_geometry_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    a = GeographicItem.st_collect_sql(geographic_item_ids)
    '(SELECT single.single_geometry FROM (' + a + ' ) AS single)'
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #   returns a single geometry "column" (paren wrapped) as "single" for multiple geographic item ids, or the
  # geometry as 'geometry' for a single id
  def geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)
    geographic_item_ids.flatten! # *ALWAYS* reduce the pile to a single level of ids
    if geographic_item_ids.count == 1
      "(#{GeographicItem.geometry_for_sql(geographic_item_ids.first)})"
    else
      GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(geographic_item_ids)
    end
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  def containing_where_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
      #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
       CASE geographic_items.type
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
      END)"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  def containing_where_sql_geog(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
      #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
       CASE geographic_items.type
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geography
      END)"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] ids
  # @return [Array]
  #   If we detect that some query id has crossed the meridian, then loop through
  #   and "manually" build up a list of results.
  #   Should only be used if GeographicItem.crosses_anti_meridian_by_id? is true.
  #   Note that this does not return a Scope, so you can't chain it like contained_by?
  # TODO: test this
  def contained_by_with_antimeridian_check(*ids)
    ids.flatten! # make sure there is only one level of splat (*)
    results = []

    crossing_ids = []

    ids.each do |id|
      # push each which crosses
      crossing_ids.push(id) if GeographicItem.crosses_anti_meridian_by_id?(id)
    end

    non_crossing_ids = ids - crossing_ids
    results.push GeographicItem.contained_by(non_crossing_ids).to_a if non_crossing_ids.any?

    crossing_ids.each do |id|
      # [61666, 61661, 61659, 61654, 61639]
      q1 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['SELECT ST_AsText((SELECT polygon FROM geographic_items ' \
                                                         'WHERE id = ?))', id])
      r = GeographicItem.where(
        # GeographicItem.contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(GeographicItem.find(id).geo_object.to_s)
        GeographicItem.contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(
          ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(q1).first['st_astext'])
      ).to_a
      results.push(r)
    end

    results.flatten.uniq
  end

  # @params [String] well known text
  # @return [String] the SQL fragment for the specific geometry type, shifted by longitude
  # Note: this routine is called when it is already known that the A argument crosses anti-meridian
  def contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(wkt)
    "ST_Contains(ST_ShiftLongitude(ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', 4326)), (
    CASE geographic_items.type
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_polygon::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(point::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(line_string::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(polygon::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_line_string::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_point::geometry)
    END
    )
  )"
  end

  # TODO: Remove the hard coded 4326 reference
  # @params [String] wkt
  # @return [String] SQL fragment limiting geographics items to those in this WKT
  def contained_by_wkt_sql(wkt)
    if crosses_anti_meridian?(wkt)
      retval = contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(wkt)
    else
      retval = "ST_Contains(ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', 4326), (
    CASE geographic_items.type
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
    END
    )
  )"
    end
    retval
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String] sql for contained_by via ST_ContainsProperly
  # Note: Can not use GEOMETRY_SQL because geometry_collection is not supported in ST_ContainsProperly
  # Note: !! If the target GeographicItem#id crosses the anti-meridian then you may/will get unexpected results.
  def contained_by_where_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_Contains(
    #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
    CASE geographic_items.type
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
    END)"
  end

  # @param [RGeo:Point] rgeo_point
  # @return [String] sql for containing via ST_CoveredBy
  # TODO: Remove the hard coded 4326 reference
  # TODO: should this be wkt_point instead of rgeo_point?
  def containing_where_for_point_sql(rgeo_point)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
  ST_GeomFromText('#{rgeo_point}', 4326),
  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}
 )"
  end

  # @param [Interger] geographic_item_id
  # @return [String] SQL for geometries
  # example, not used
  def geometry_for_sql(geographic_item_id)
    'SELECT ' + GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry FROM geographic_items WHERE id = ' \
      "#{geographic_item_id} LIMIT 1"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String] SQL for geometries
  # example, not used
  def geometry_for_collection_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    'SELECT ' + GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry FROM geographic_items WHERE id IN ' \
      "( #{geographic_item_ids.join(',')} )"
  end

  #
  # Scopes
  #

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items containing these collective geographic_item ids, not including self
  def containing(*geographic_item_ids)
    where(GeographicItem.containing_where_sql(geographic_item_ids)).not_ids(*geographic_item_ids)
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items contained by any of these geographic_item ids, not including self
  # (works via ST_ContainsProperly)
  def contained_by(*geographic_item_ids)
    where(GeographicItem.contained_by_where_sql(geographic_item_ids))
  end

  # @param [RGeo::Point] rgeo_point
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items containing this point
  # TODO: should be containing_wkt ?
  def containing_point(rgeo_point)
    where(GeographicItem.containing_where_for_point_sql(rgeo_point))
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   adds an area_in_meters field, with meters
  def with_area
    select("ST_Area(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, false) as area_in_meters")
  end

  # return [Scope]
  #   A scope that limits the result to those GeographicItems that have a collecting event
  #   through either the geographic_item or the error_geographic_item
  #
  # A raw SQL join approach for comparison
  #
  # GeographicItem.joins('LEFT JOIN georeferences g1 ON geographic_items.id = g1.geographic_item_id').
  #   joins('LEFT JOIN georeferences g2 ON geographic_items.id = g2.error_geographic_item_id').
  #   where("(g1.geographic_item_id IS NOT NULL OR g2.error_geographic_item_id IS NOT NULL)").uniq

  # @return [Scope] GeographicItem
  # This uses an Arel table approach, this is ultimately more decomposable if we need. Of use:
  #  http://danshultz.github.io/talks/mastering_activerecord_arel  <- best
  #  https://github.com/rails/arel
  #  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4500629/use-arel-for-a-nested-set-join-query-and-convert-to-activerecordrelation
  #  http://rdoc.info/github/rails/arel/Arel/SelectManager
  #  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7976358/activerecord-arel-or-condition
  #
  def with_collecting_event_through_georeferences
    geographic_items = GeographicItem.arel_table
    georeferences = Georeference.arel_table
    g1 = georeferences.alias('a')
    g2 = georeferences.alias('b')

    c = geographic_items.join(g1, Arel::Nodes::OuterJoin).on(geographic_items[:id].eq(g1[:geographic_item_id]))
      .join(g2, Arel::Nodes::OuterJoin).on(geographic_items[:id].eq(g2[:error_geographic_item_id]))

    GeographicItem.joins(# turn the Arel back into scope
                         c.join_sources # translate the Arel join to a join hash(?)
                        ).where(
                          g1[:id].not_eq(nil).or(g2[:id].not_eq(nil)) # returns a Arel::Nodes::Grouping
                        ).distinct
  end

  # @return [Scope] include a 'latitude' column
  def with_latitude
    select(lat_long_sql(:latitude))
  end

  # @return [Scope] include a 'longitude' column
  def with_longitude
    select(lat_long_sql(:longitude))
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItems]
  # @return [Scope]
  def intersecting(column_name, *geographic_items)
    if column_name.downcase == 'any'
      pieces = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        pieces.push(GeographicItem.intersecting(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
      }

      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct

      GeographicItem.where(id: pieces.flatten.map(&:id))
    else
      q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
        "ST_Intersects(#{column_name}, '#{geographic_item.geo_object}'    )" # seems like we want this: http://danshultz.github.io/talks/mastering_activerecord_arel/#/15/2
      }.join(' or ')

      where(q)
    end
  end

  # @param [GeographicItem#id] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Float] distance in meters ?!?!
  # @return [ActiveRecord::Relation]
  # !! should be distance, not radius?!
  def within_radius_of_item(geographic_item_id, distance)
    where(within_radius_of_item_sql(geographic_item_id, distance))
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_DISJOINT, specifies all geographic_items that have data in column_name
  #   that are disjoint from the passed geographic_items
  def disjoint_from(column_name, *geographic_items)
    q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
      "ST_DISJOINT(#{column_name}::geometry, (#{geometry_sql(geographic_item.to_param,
                                                         geographic_item.geo_object_type)}))"
    }.join(' and ')

    where(q)
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   see are_contained_in_item_by_id
  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem, Array] geographic_items
  def are_contained_in_item(column_name, *geographic_items)
    are_contained_in_item_by_id(column_name, geographic_items.flatten.map(&:id))
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  # @param [String] column_name to search
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item_ids or array of geographic_item_ids to be tested.
  # @return [Scope] of GeographicItems
  #
  # If this scope is given an Array of GeographicItems as a second parameter,
  # it will return the 'OR' of each of the objects against the table.
  # SELECT COUNT(*) FROM "geographic_items"
  #        WHERE (ST_Contains(polygon::geometry, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;POINT (0.0 0.0 0.0)'))
  #               OR ST_Contains(polygon::geometry, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;POINT (-9.8 5.0 0.0)')))
  #
  def are_contained_in_item_by_id(column_name, *geographic_item_ids) # = containing
    geographic_item_ids.flatten! # in case there is a array of arrays, or multiple objects
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_item_by_id(column.to_s, geographic_item_ids).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_item_by_id("#{column}", geographic_item_ids).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))
    else
      q = geographic_item_ids.flatten.collect { |geographic_item_id|
        # discover the item types, and convert type to database type for 'multi_'
        b = GeographicItem.where(id: geographic_item_id)
          .pluck(:type)[0].split(':')[2].downcase.gsub('lti', 'lti_')
        # a = GeographicItem.find(geographic_item_id).geo_object_type
        GeographicItem.containing_sql(column_name, geographic_item_id, b)
      }.join(' or ')
      q = 'FALSE' if q.blank? # this will prevent the invocation of *ALL* of the GeographicItems, if there are
      # no GeographicItems in the request (see CollectingEvent.name_hash(types)).
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:enable Metrics/MethodLength

  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [String] geometry of WKT
  # @return [Scope]
  # a single WKT geometry is compared against column or columns (except geometry_collection) to find geographic_items
  # which are contained in the WKT
  def are_contained_in_wkt(column_name, geometry)
    column_name.downcase!
    # column_name = 'point'
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_wkt(column.to_s, geometry).pluck(:id).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten)
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_wkt("#{column}", geometry).pluck(:id).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten)
    else
      # column = points, geometry = square
      q = "ST_Contains(ST_GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geometry}'), #{column_name}::geometry)"
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  #    containing the items the shape of which is contained in the geographic_item[s] supplied.
  # @param column_name [String] can be any of DATA_TYPES, or 'any' to check against all types, 'any_poly' to check
  # against 'polygon' or 'multi_polygon', or 'any_line' to check against 'line_string' or 'multi_line_string'.
  #  CANNOT be 'geometry_collection'.
  # @param geographic_items [GeographicItem] Can be a single GeographicItem, or an array of GeographicItem.
  # @return [Scope]
  def is_contained_by(column_name, *geographic_items)
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.is_contained_by(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
        end
      }
      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))

    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
            part.push(GeographicItem.is_contained_by(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
          end
        end
      }
      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))

    else
      q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
        GeographicItem.reverse_containing_sql(column_name, geographic_item.to_param,
                                              geographic_item.geo_object_type)
      }.join(' or ')
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:enable Metrics/MethodLength

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def ordered_by_shortest_distance_from(column_name, geographic_item)
    if true # check_geo_params(column_name, geographic_item)
      select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
        .where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item).order('distance')
    else
      where('false')
    end
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def ordered_by_longest_distance_from(column_name, geographic_item)
    if true # check_geo_params(column_name, geographic_item)
      q = select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
        .where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item)
        .order('distance desc')
      q
    else
      where('false')
    end
  end

  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
  # @return [String]
  def select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
    select("*, ST_Distance(#{column_name}, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geographic_item.geo_object}')) as distance")
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item)
    where("#{column_name} is not null and ST_Distance(#{column_name}, " \
          "GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geographic_item.geo_object}')) > 0")
  end

  # @param [GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def not_including(geographic_items)
    where.not(id: geographic_items)
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   includes an 'is_valid' attribute (True/False) for the passed geographic_item.  Uses St_IsValid.
  # @param [RGeo object] geographic_item
  def with_is_valid_geometry_column(geographic_item)
    where(id: geographic_item.id).select("ST_IsValid(ST_AsBinary(#{geographic_item.geo_object_type})) is_valid")
  end

  #
  # Other
  #

  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id1
  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id2
  # @return [Float]
  def distance_between(geographic_item_id1, geographic_item_id2)
    q1 = "ST_Distance(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, " \
      "(#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id2)})) as distance"
    _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(
      :sanitize_sql_array, ['ST_Distance(?, (?)) as distance',
                            GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL,
                            select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id2)])
    GeographicItem.where(id: geographic_item_id1).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
  end

  # @param [RGeo::Point] point
  # @return [Hash]
  #   as per #inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy but for Rgeo point
  def point_inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy(point)
    GeographicItem.containing_point(point).order(cached_total_area: :ASC).limit(1).first&.inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy
  end

  # @param [String] type_name ('polygon', 'point', 'line' [, 'circle'])
  # @return [String] if type
  def eval_for_type(type_name)
    retval = 'GeographicItem'
    case type_name.upcase
    when 'POLYGON'
      retval += '::Polygon'
    when 'LINESTRING'
      retval += '::LineString'
    when 'POINT'
      retval += '::Point'
    when 'MULTIPOLYGON'
      retval += '::MultiPolygon'
    when 'MULTILINESTRING'
      retval += '::MultiLineString'
    when 'MULTIPOINT'
      retval += '::MultiPoint'
    else
      retval = nil
    end
    retval
  end

  # example, not used
  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @return [RGeo::Geographic object]
  def geometry_for(geographic_item_id)
    GeographicItem.select(GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry').find(geographic_item_id)['geometry']
  end

  # example, not used
  # @param [Integer, Array] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  def st_multi(*geographic_item_ids)
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
      "SELECT ST_Multi(ST_Collect(g.the_geom)) AS singlegeom
 FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DUMP(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql})).geom AS the_geom
    FROM geographic_items
    WHERE id IN (?))
  AS g;", geographic_item_ids.flatten
    )
  end
end # class << self

# @return [Hash]
#    a geographic_name_classification or empty Hash
# This is a quick approach that works only when
# the geographic_item is linked explicitly to a GeographicArea.
#
# !! Note that it is not impossible for a GeographicItem to be linked
# to > 1 GeographicArea, in that case we are assuming that all are
# equally refined, this might not be the case in the future because
# of how the GeographicArea gazetteer is indexed.
def quick_geographic_name_hierarchy
  geographic_areas.order(:id).each do |ga|
    h = ga.geographic_name_classification # not quick enough !!
    return h if h.present?
  end
  return  {}
end

# @return [Hash]
#   a geographic_name_classification (see GeographicArea) inferred by
# finding the smallest area containing this GeographicItem, in the most accurate gazetteer
# and using it to return country/state/county. See also the logic in
# filling in missing levels in GeographicArea.
def inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy
  if small_area = containing_geographic_areas
    .joins(:geographic_areas_geographic_items)
    .merge(GeographicAreasGeographicItem.ordered_by_data_origin)
    .ordered_by_area
    .limit(1)
    .first
  return small_area.geographic_name_classification
  else
    {}
  end
end

def geographic_name_hierarchy
  a = quick_geographic_name_hierarchy # quick; almost never the case, UI not setup to do this
  return a if a.present?
  inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy # slow
end

# @return [Scope]
#   the Geographic Areas that contain (gis) this geographic item
def containing_geographic_areas
  GeographicArea.joins(:geographic_items).includes(:geographic_area_type)
    .joins("JOIN (#{GeographicItem.containing(id).to_sql}) j on geographic_items.id = j.id")
end

# @return [Boolean]
#   whether stored shape is ST_IsValid
def valid_geometry?
  GeographicItem.with_is_valid_geometry_column(self).first['is_valid']
end

# @return [Array of latitude, longitude]
#    the lat, lon of the first point in the GeoItem, see subclass for #st_start_point
def start_point
  o = st_start_point
  [o.y, o.x]
end

# @return [Array]
#   the lat, long, as STRINGs for the centroid of this geographic item
#   Meh- this: https://postgis.net/docs/en/ST_MinimumBoundingRadius.html
def center_coords
  r = GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
    "Select split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}), " \
    "'D.DDDDDD'), ' ', 1) latitude, split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid" \
    "(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}), 'D.DDDDDD'), ' ', 2) " \
    "longitude from geographic_items where id = #{id};")[0]

  [r.latitude, r.longitude]
end

# @return [RGeo::Geographic::ProjectedPointImpl]
#    representing the centroid of this geographic item
def centroid
  # Gis::FACTORY.point(*center_coords.reverse)
  return geo_object if type == 'GeographicItem::Point'
  return Gis::FACTORY.parse_wkt(self.st_centroid)
end

# @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
# @return [Double] distance in meters (slower, more accurate)
def st_distance(geographic_item_id) # geo_object
  q1 = "ST_Distance((#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(id)}), " \
    "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)})) as d"
  _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['ST_Distance((?),(?)) as d',
                                                      GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(self.id),
                                                      GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)])
  deg = GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
  deg * Utilities::Geo::ONE_WEST
end

# @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
# @return [Double] distance in meters
# Like st_distance but works with changed and non persisted objects
def st_distance_to_geographic_item(geographic_item)
  unless !persisted? || changed?
    a = "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(id)})"
  else
    a = "ST_GeographyFromText('#{geo_object}')"
  end

  unless !geographic_item.persisted? || geographic_item.changed?
    b = "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item.id)})"
  else
    b = "ST_GeographyFromText('#{geographic_item.geo_object}')"
  end

  ActiveRecord::Base.connection.select_value("SELECT ST_Distance(#{a}, #{b})")
end

alias_method :distance_to, :st_distance

# @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
# @return [Double] distance in meters (faster, less accurate)
def st_distance_spheroid(geographic_item_id)
  q1 = "ST_DistanceSpheroid((#{GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(id)})," \
    "(#{GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id)}),'#{Gis::SPHEROID}') as distance"
  _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array,
                                ['ST_DistanceSpheroid((?),(?),?) as distance',
                                 GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(id),
                                 GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id),
                                 Gis::SPHEROID])
  # TODO: what is _q2?
  GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
end

# @return [String]
#   a WKT POINT representing the centroid of the geographic item
def st_centroid
  GeographicItem.where(id: to_param).pluck(Arel.sql("ST_AsEWKT(ST_Centroid(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}))")).first.gsub(/SRID=\d*;/, '')
end

# @return [Integer]
#   the number of points in the geometry
def st_npoints
  GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql("ST_NPoints(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as npoints")).first
end

# @return [Symbol]
#   the geo type (i.e. column like :point, :multipolygon).  References the first-found object,
# according to the list of DATA_TYPES, or nil
def geo_object_type
  if self.class.name == 'GeographicItem' # a proxy check for new records
    geo_type
  else
    self.class::SHAPE_COLUMN
  end
end

# !!TODO: migrate these to use native column calls

# @return [RGeo instance, nil]
#  the Rgeo shape (See http://rubydoc.info/github/dazuma/rgeo/RGeo/Feature)
def geo_object
  begin
    if r = geo_object_type # rubocop:disable Lint/AssignmentInCondition
      send(r)
    else
      false
    end
  rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry
    return nil # TODO: we need to render proper error for this!
  end
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def contains?(target_geo_object)
  return nil if target_geo_object.nil?
  self.geo_object.contains?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def within?(target_geo_object)
  self.geo_object.within?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def intersects?(target_geo_object)
  self.geo_object.intersects?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object, Double]
# @return [Boolean]
def near(target_geo_object, distance)
  self.geo_object.unsafe_buffer(distance).contains?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object, Double]
# @return [Boolean]
def far(target_geo_object, distance)
  !near(target_geo_object, distance)
end

# @return [GeoJSON hash]
#    via Rgeo apparently necessary for GeometryCollection
def rgeo_to_geo_json
  RGeo::GeoJSON.encode(geo_object).to_json
end

# @return [Hash]
#   in GeoJSON format
#   Computed via "raw" PostGIS (much faster). This
#   requires the geo_object_type and id.
#
def to_geo_json
  JSON.parse(
    GeographicItem.connection.select_one(
      "SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(#{geo_object_type}::geometry) a " \
      "FROM geographic_items WHERE id=#{id};")['a'])
end

# We don't need to serialize to/from JSON
def to_geo_json_string
  GeographicItem.connection.select_one(
    "SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(#{geo_object_type}::geometry) a " \
    "FROM geographic_items WHERE id=#{id};")['a']
end

# @return [Hash]
#   the shape as a GeoJSON Feature with some item metadata
def to_geo_json_feature
  @geometry ||= to_geo_json
  {'type' => 'Feature',
   'geometry' => geometry,
   'properties' => {
     'geographic_item' => {
       'id' => id}
   }
  }
end

# @param value [String] like:
#   '{"type":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"Point","coordinates":[2.5,4.0]},"properties":{"color":"red"}}'
#
#   '{"type":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"Polygon","coordinates":"[[[-125.29394388198853, 48.584480409793],
#      [-67.11035013198853, 45.09937589848195],[-80.64550638198853, 25.01924647619111],[-117.55956888198853,
#      32.5591595028449],[-125.29394388198853, 48.584480409793]]]"},"properties":{}}'
#
#  '{"type":"Point","coordinates":[2.5,4.0]},"properties":{"color":"red"}}'
#
# @return [Boolean, RGeo object]
def shape=(value)

  if value.present?

    begin
      geom = RGeo::GeoJSON.decode(value, json_parser: :json, geo_factory: Gis::FACTORY)
    rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry => e
      errors.add(:base, "invalid geometry: #{e.to_s}")
      return
    end

    this_type = nil

    if geom.respond_to?(:geometry_type)
      this_type = geom.geometry_type.to_s
    elsif geom.respond_to?(:geometry)
      this_type = geom.geometry.geometry_type.to_s
    else
    end

    self.type = GeographicItem.eval_for_type(this_type) unless geom.nil?

    if type.blank?
      errors.add(:base, 'type is not set from shape')
      return
    end

    object = nil

    s = geom.respond_to?(:geometry) ? geom.geometry.to_s : geom.to_s

    begin
      object = Gis::FACTORY.parse_wkt(s)
    rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry
      errors.add(:self, 'Shape value is an Invalid Geometry')
    end

    write_attribute(this_type.underscore.to_sym, object)
    geom
  end
end

# @return [String]
def to_wkt
  #  10k  #<Benchmark::Tms:0x00007fb0dfd30fd0 @label="", @real=25.237487000005785, @cstime=0.0, @cutime=0.0, @stime=1.1704609999999995, @utime=5.507929999999988, @total=6.678390999999987>
  #  GeographicItem.select("ST_AsText( #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) wkt").where(id: id).first.wkt

  # 10k <Benchmark::Tms:0x00007fb0e02f7540 @label="", @real=21.619827999995323, @cstime=0.0, @cutime=0.0, @stime=0.8850890000000007, @utime=3.2958549999999605, @total=4.180943999999961>
  if a =  ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_AsText( #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} ) wkt from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first
    return a['wkt']
  else
    return nil
  end
end

# @return  [Float] in meters, calculated
# TODO: share with world
#    Geographic item 96862 (Cajamar in Brazil) is the only(?) record to fail using `false` (quicker) method of everything we tested
def area
  a = GeographicItem.where(id:).select("ST_Area(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, true) as area_in_meters").first['area_in_meters']
  a = nil if a.nan?
  a
end

# @return [Float, false]
#    the value in square meters of the interesecting area of this and another GeographicItem
def intersecting_area(geographic_item_id)
  a = GeographicItem.aliased_geographic_sql('a')
  b = GeographicItem.aliased_geographic_sql('b')

  c = GeographicItem.connection.execute(
    "SELECT ST_Area(ST_Intersection(#{a}, #{b})) as intersecting_area
      FROM geographic_items a, geographic_items b
      WHERE a.id = #{id} AND b.id = #{geographic_item_id};"
  ).first
  c && c['intersecting_area'].to_f
end

# TODO: This is bad, while internal use of ONE_WEST_MEAN is consistent it is in-accurate given the vast differences of radius vs. lat/long position.
# When we strike the error-polygon from radius we should remove this
#
# Use case is returning the radius from a circle we calculated via buffer for error-polygon creation.
def radius
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_MinimumBoundingRadius( ST_Transform(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}, 4326 )  ) AS radius from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['radius'].split(',').last.chop.to_f
  r = (r * Utilities::Geo::ONE_WEST_MEAN).to_i
end


# Convention is to store in PostGIS in CCW
# @return Array [Boolean]
#   false - cw
#   true - ccw (preferred), except cee donuts
def orientations
  if multi_polygon.present?
    ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(" \
         SELECT ST_IsPolygonCCW(a.geom) as is_ccw
            FROM ( SELECT b.id, (ST_Dump(p_geom)).geom AS geom
               FROM (SELECT id, multi_polygon::geometry AS p_geom FROM geographic_items where id = #{id}) AS b \
          ) AS a;").collect{|a| a['is_ccw']}
  elsif polygon.present?
    ApplicationRecord.connection.execute("SELECT ST_IsPolygonCCW(polygon::geometry) as is_ccw \
            FROM geographic_items where  id = #{id};").collect{|a| a['is_ccw']}
  else
    []
  end
end

# @return Boolean
#   looks at all orientations
#   if they follow the pattern [true, false, ... <all false>] then `true`, else `false`
# !! Does not confirm that shapes are nested !!
def is_basic_donut?
  a = orientations
  b = a.shift
  return false unless b
  a.uniq!
  a == [false]
end

def st_isvalid
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_IsValid(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql }) from  geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['st_isvalid']
end

def st_isvalidreason
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_IsValidReason(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql }) from  geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['st_isvalidreason']
end

# !! Unused. Doesn't check Geometry collection
def has_polygons?
  ['GeographicItem::MultiPolygon', 'GeographicItem::Polygon'].include?(self.type)
end

private

def align_winding
  if orientations.flatten.include?(false)
    case type
    when 'multi_polygon'
      ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(
        "UPDATE geographic_items set multi_polygon = ST_ForcePolygonCCW(multi_polygon::geometry) 
          WHERE id = #{self.id};"
       )
    when 'polygon'
     ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(
        "UPDATE geographic_items set polygon = ST_ForcePolygonCCW(polygon::geometry) 
          WHERE id = #{self.id};"
       )
    end     
  end
  true
end

# Crude debuging helper, write the shapes
# to a png
def self.debug_draw(geographic_item_ids = [])
  return false if geographic_item_ids.empty?

  sql = "SELECT ST_AsPNG(
     ST_AsRaster(
        (SELECT ST_Union(multi_polygon::geometry) from geographic_items where id IN (" + geographic_item_ids.join(',') + ")), 1920, 1080
    )
   ) png;"

  # ST_Buffer( multi_polygon::geometry, 0, 'join=bevel'),
  #     1920,
  #     1080)


  result = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.execute(sql).first['png']
  r = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.unescape_bytea(result)

  prefix = if geographic_item_ids.size > 10
             'multiple'
           else
             geographic_item_ids.join('_') + '_debug.draw.png'
           end

  n = prefix + '_debug.draw.png'

  # Open the file in binary write mode ("wb")
  File.open(n, 'wb') do |file|
    # Write the binary data to the file
    file.write(r)
  end
end

# def png

#   if ids = Otu.joins(:cached_map_items).first.cached_map_items.pluck(:geographic_item_id)

#     sql = "SELECT ST_AsPNG(
#    ST_AsRaster(
#        ST_Buffer( multi_polygon::geometry, 0, 'join=bevel'),
#            1024,
#            768)
#     ) png
#        from geographic_items where id IN (" + ids.join(',') + ');'

#     # hack, not the best way to unpack result
#     result = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.execute(sql).first['png']
#     r = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.unescape_bytea(result)

#     send_data r, filename: 'foo.png', type: 'imnage/png'

#   else
#     render json: {foo: false}
#   end
# end

def set_cached
  update_column(:cached_total_area, area)
end

# @return [Symbol]
#   returns the attribute (column name) containing data
#   nearly all methods should use #geo_object_type, not geo_type
def geo_type
  DATA_TYPES.each { |item|
    return item if send(item)
  }
  nil
end

# @return [Boolean, String] false if already set, or type to which it was set
def set_type_if_geography_present
  if type.blank?
    column = geo_type
    self.type = "GeographicItem::#{column.to_s.camelize}" if column
  end
end

# @param [RGeo::Point] point
# @return [Array] of a point
#   Longitude |, Latitude -
def point_to_a(point)
  data = []
  data.push(point.x, point.y)
  data
end

# @param [RGeo::Point] point
# @return [Hash] of a point
def point_to_hash(point)
  {points: [point_to_a(point)]}
end

# @param [RGeo::MultiPoint] multi_point
# @return [Array] of points
def multi_point_to_a(multi_point)
  data = []
  multi_point.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of points
def multi_point_to_hash(_multi_point)
  # when we encounter a multi_point type, we only stick the points into the array, NOT it's identity as a group
  {points: multi_point_to_a(multi_point)}
end

# @param [Reo::LineString] line_string
# @return [Array] of points in the line
def line_string_to_a(line_string)
  data = []
  line_string.points.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @param [Reo::LineString] line_string
# @return [Hash] of points in the line
def line_string_to_hash(line_string)
  {lines: [line_string_to_a(line_string)]}
end

# @param [RGeo::Polygon] polygon
# @return [Array] of points in the polygon (exterior_ring ONLY)
def polygon_to_a(polygon)
  # TODO: handle other parts of the polygon; i.e., the interior_rings (if they exist)
  data = []
  polygon.exterior_ring.points.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @param [RGeo::Polygon] polygon
# @return [Hash] of points in the polygon (exterior_ring ONLY)
def polygon_to_hash(polygon)
  {polygons: [polygon_to_a(polygon)]}
end

# @return [Array] of line_strings as arrays of points
# @param [RGeo::MultiLineString] multi_line_string
def multi_line_string_to_a(multi_line_string)
  data = []
  multi_line_string.each { |line_string|
    line_data = []
    line_string.points.each { |point|
      line_data.push([point.x, point.y])
    }
    data.push(line_data)
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of line_strings as hashes of points
def multi_line_string_to_hash(_multi_line_string)
  {lines: to_a}
end

# @param [RGeo::MultiPolygon] multi_polygon
# @return [Array] of arrays of points in the polygons (exterior_ring ONLY)
def multi_polygon_to_a(multi_polygon)
  data = []
  multi_polygon.each { |polygon|
    polygon_data = []
    polygon.exterior_ring.points.each { |point|
      polygon_data.push([point.x, point.y])
    }
    data.push(polygon_data)
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of hashes of points in the polygons (exterior_ring ONLY)
def multi_polygon_to_hash(_multi_polygon)
  {polygons: to_a}
end

# @return [Boolean] iff there is one and only one shape column set
def some_data_is_provided
  data = []

  DATA_TYPES.each do |item|
    data.push(item) if send(item).present?
  end

  case data.count
  when 0
    errors.add(:base, 'No shape provided or provided shape is invalid')
  when 1
    return true
  else
    data.each do |object|
      errors.add(object, 'More than one shape type provided')
    end
  end
  true
end
end

#geometryHash?

Returns An internal variable for use in super calls, holds a Hash in GeoJSON format (temporarily).

Returns:

  • (Hash, nil)

    An internal variable for use in super calls, holds a Hash in GeoJSON format (temporarily)



49
50
51
# File 'app/models/geographic_item.rb', line 49

def geometry
  @geometry
end

#line_stringRGeo::Geographic::ProjectedLineStringImpl

Returns:

  • (RGeo::Geographic::ProjectedLineStringImpl)


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# File 'app/models/geographic_item.rb', line 40

class GeographicItem < ApplicationRecord
  include Housekeeping::Users
  include Housekeeping::Timestamps
  include Shared::HasPapertrail
  include Shared::IsData
  include Shared::SharedAcrossProjects

  # @return [Hash, nil]
  #   An internal variable for use in super calls, holds a Hash in GeoJSON format (temporarily)
  attr_accessor :geometry

  # @return [Boolean, RGeo object]
  # @params value [Hash in GeoJSON format] ?!
  # TODO: WHY! boolean not nil, or object
  # Used to build geographic items from a shape [ of what class ] !?
  attr_accessor :shape

  # @return [Boolean]
  #   When true cached values are not built
  attr_accessor :no_cached

  DATA_TYPES = [
:point,
:line_string,
:polygon,
:multi_point,
:multi_line_string,
:multi_polygon,
:geometry_collection
  ].freeze

  GEOMETRY_SQL = Arel::Nodes::Case.new(arel_table[:type])
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPolygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Point').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::LineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Polygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiLineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPoint').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::GeometryCollection').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:geometry_collection].as('geometry')]))
.freeze

  GEOGRAPHY_SQL = "CASE geographic_items.type
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN geometry_collection
END".freeze

# ANTI_MERIDIAN = '0X0102000020E61000000200000000000000008066400000000000405640000000000080664000000000004056C0'
ANTI_MERIDIAN = 'LINESTRING (180 89.0, 180 -89)'.freeze

has_many :cached_map_items, inverse_of: :geographic_item

has_many :geographic_areas_geographic_items, dependent: :destroy, inverse_of: :geographic_item
has_many :geographic_areas, through: :geographic_areas_geographic_items
has_many :asserted_distributions, through: :geographic_areas
has_many :geographic_area_types, through: :geographic_areas
has_many :parent_geographic_areas, through: :geographic_areas, source: :parent

has_many :georeferences, inverse_of: :geographic_item
has_many :georeferences_through_error_geographic_item,
  class_name: 'Georeference', foreign_key: :error_geographic_item_id, inverse_of: :error_geographic_item
has_many :collecting_events_through_georeferences, through: :georeferences, source: :collecting_event
has_many :collecting_events_through_georeference_error_geographic_item,
  through: :georeferences_through_error_geographic_item, source: :collecting_event

# TODO: THIS IS NOT GOOD
before_validation :set_type_if_geography_present

validate :some_data_is_provided
validates :type, presence: true # not needed

scope :include_collecting_event, -> { includes(:collecting_events_through_georeferences) }
scope :geo_with_collecting_event, -> { joins(:collecting_events_through_georeferences) }
scope :err_with_collecting_event, -> { joins(:georeferences_through_error_geographic_item) }

after_save :set_cached, unless: Proc.new {|n| n.no_cached || errors.any? }
after_save :align_winding

class << self

  def aliased_geographic_sql(name = 'a')
    "CASE #{name}.type \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN #{name}.multi_polygon \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN #{name}.point \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN #{name}.line_string \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN #{name}.polygon \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN #{name}.multi_line_string \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN #{name}.multi_point \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN #{name}.geometry_collection \
     END"
  end

  def st_union(geographic_item_scope)
    GeographicItem.select("ST_Union(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as collection")
      .where(id: geographic_item_scope.pluck(:id))
  end

  def st_collect(geographic_item_scope)
    GeographicItem.select("ST_Collect(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as collection")
      .where(id: geographic_item_scope.pluck(:id))
  end

  # @return [GeographicItem::ActiveRecord_Relation]
  # @params [Array] array of geographic area ids
  def default_by_geographic_area_ids(geographic_area_ids = [])
    GeographicItem.
      joins(:geographic_areas_geographic_items).
      merge(::GeographicAreasGeographicItem.default_geographic_item_data).
      where(geographic_areas_geographic_items: {geographic_area_id: geographic_area_ids})
  end

  # @param [String] wkt
  # @return [Boolean]
  #   whether or not the wtk intersects with the anti-meridian
  #   !! StrongParams security considerations
  def crosses_anti_meridian?(wkt)
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
      ['SELECT ST_Intersects(ST_GeogFromText(?), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', wkt, ANTI_MERIDIAN]
    ).first.r
  end

  # @param [Integer] ids
  # @return [Boolean]
  #   whether or not any GeographicItem passed intersects the anti-meridian
  #   !! StrongParams security considerations
  #   This is our first line of defense against queries that define multiple shapes, one or
  #   more of which crosses the anti-meridian.  In this case the current TW strategy within the
  #   UI is to abandon the search, and prompt the user to refactor the query.
  def crosses_anti_meridian_by_id?(*ids)
    q1 = ["SELECT ST_Intersects((SELECT single_geometry FROM (#{GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(*ids)}) as " \
          'left_intersect), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', ANTI_MERIDIAN]
    _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['SELECT ST_Intersects((SELECT single_geometry FROM (?) as ' \
                                                        'left_intersect), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(*ids), ANTI_MERIDIAN])
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(q1).first.r
  end

  #
  # SQL fragments
  #

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL select statement that returns the *geometry* for the geographic_item with the specified id
  def select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id)
    "SELECT #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{geographic_item_id}"
  end

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL select statement that returns the geography for the geographic_item with the specified id
  def select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)
    ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_for_conditions, [
      "SELECT #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = ?",
      geographic_item_id])
  end

  # @param [Symbol] choice
  # @return [String]
  #   a fragment returning either latitude or longitude columns
  def lat_long_sql(choice)
    return nil unless [:latitude, :longitude].include?(choice)
    f = "'D.DDDDDD'" # TODO: probably a constant somewhere
    v = (choice == :latitude ? 1 : 2)
    "CASE geographic_items.type
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid" \
  "(geometry_collection::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid(line_string::geometry), " \
  "#{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_polygon::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(point::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(polygon::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_line_string::geometry), #{f} ), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_point::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
END as #{choice}"
  end

  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Integer] distance
  # @return [String]
  def within_radius_of_item_sql(geographic_item_id, distance)
    "ST_DWithin((#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}), (#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)}), #{distance})"
  end


  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Number] distance in meters to grow/shrink the shape (negative allowed)
  # @param [Number] distance (in meters) (positive only?!)
  # @return [String]
  def st_buffer_st_within(geographic_item_id, distance, buffer = 0)
    "ST_DWithin(
    ST_Buffer(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, #{buffer}),
    (#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)}), #{distance}
   )"
  end


  # TODO: 3D is overkill here
  # @param [String] wkt
  # @param [Integer] distance (meters)
  # @return [String]
  # !! This is intersecting
  def intersecting_radius_of_wkt_sql(wkt, distance)
    "ST_DWithin((#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}), ST_Transform( ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', " \
      "4326), 4326), #{distance})"
  end

  # @param [String] wkt
  # @param [Integer] distance (meters)
  # @return [String]
  # !! This is fully covering
  def within_radius_of_wkt_sql(wkt, distance)
    "ST_Covers( ST_Buffer(ST_SetSRID( ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}'), 4326)::geography, #{distance}), (#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}))"
  end

  # @param [String, Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_Contains() function, returns
  #   all geographic items which are contained in the item supplied
  def containing_sql(target_column_name = nil, geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil? || target_column_name.nil?
    "ST_Contains(#{target_column_name}::geometry, (#{geometry_sql(geographic_item_id, source_column_name)}))"
  end

  # @param [String, Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_Contains(), returns
  #   all geographic_items which contain the supplied geographic_item
  def reverse_containing_sql(target_column_name = nil, geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil? || target_column_name.nil?
    "ST_Contains((#{geometry_sql(geographic_item_id, source_column_name)}), #{target_column_name}::geometry)"
  end

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment that represents the geometry of the geographic item specified (which has data in the
  # source_column_name, i.e. geo_object_type)
  def geometry_sql(geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil?
    "select geom_alias_tbl.#{source_column_name}::geometry from geographic_items geom_alias_tbl " \
      "where geom_alias_tbl.id = #{geographic_item_id}"
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
  # @return [String] of SQL
  def is_contained_by_sql(column_name, geographic_item)
    geo_id = geographic_item.id
    geo_type = geographic_item.geo_object_type
    template = '(ST_Contains((select geographic_items.%s::geometry from geographic_items where ' \
      'geographic_items.id = %d), %s::geometry))'
    retval = []
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          retval.push(template % [geo_type, geo_id, column])
        end
      }
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
            retval.push(template % [geo_type, geo_id, column])
          end
        end
      }
    else
      retval = template % [geo_type, geo_id, column_name]
    end
    retval = retval.join(' OR ') if retval.instance_of?(Array)
    retval
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #   a select query that returns a single geometry (column name 'single_geometry' for the collection of ids
  # provided via ST_Collect)
  def st_collect_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    geographic_item_ids.flatten!
    ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_for_conditions, [
      "SELECT ST_Collect(f.the_geom) AS single_geometry
 FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DUMP(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql})).geom as the_geom
    FROM geographic_items
    WHERE id in (?))
  AS f", geographic_item_ids])
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #    returns one or more geographic items combined as a single geometry in column 'single'
  def single_geometry_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    a = GeographicItem.st_collect_sql(geographic_item_ids)
    '(SELECT single.single_geometry FROM (' + a + ' ) AS single)'
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #   returns a single geometry "column" (paren wrapped) as "single" for multiple geographic item ids, or the
  # geometry as 'geometry' for a single id
  def geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)
    geographic_item_ids.flatten! # *ALWAYS* reduce the pile to a single level of ids
    if geographic_item_ids.count == 1
      "(#{GeographicItem.geometry_for_sql(geographic_item_ids.first)})"
    else
      GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(geographic_item_ids)
    end
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  def containing_where_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
      #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
       CASE geographic_items.type
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
      END)"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  def containing_where_sql_geog(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
      #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
       CASE geographic_items.type
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geography
      END)"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] ids
  # @return [Array]
  #   If we detect that some query id has crossed the meridian, then loop through
  #   and "manually" build up a list of results.
  #   Should only be used if GeographicItem.crosses_anti_meridian_by_id? is true.
  #   Note that this does not return a Scope, so you can't chain it like contained_by?
  # TODO: test this
  def contained_by_with_antimeridian_check(*ids)
    ids.flatten! # make sure there is only one level of splat (*)
    results = []

    crossing_ids = []

    ids.each do |id|
      # push each which crosses
      crossing_ids.push(id) if GeographicItem.crosses_anti_meridian_by_id?(id)
    end

    non_crossing_ids = ids - crossing_ids
    results.push GeographicItem.contained_by(non_crossing_ids).to_a if non_crossing_ids.any?

    crossing_ids.each do |id|
      # [61666, 61661, 61659, 61654, 61639]
      q1 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['SELECT ST_AsText((SELECT polygon FROM geographic_items ' \
                                                         'WHERE id = ?))', id])
      r = GeographicItem.where(
        # GeographicItem.contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(GeographicItem.find(id).geo_object.to_s)
        GeographicItem.contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(
          ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(q1).first['st_astext'])
      ).to_a
      results.push(r)
    end

    results.flatten.uniq
  end

  # @params [String] well known text
  # @return [String] the SQL fragment for the specific geometry type, shifted by longitude
  # Note: this routine is called when it is already known that the A argument crosses anti-meridian
  def contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(wkt)
    "ST_Contains(ST_ShiftLongitude(ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', 4326)), (
    CASE geographic_items.type
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_polygon::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(point::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(line_string::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(polygon::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_line_string::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_point::geometry)
    END
    )
  )"
  end

  # TODO: Remove the hard coded 4326 reference
  # @params [String] wkt
  # @return [String] SQL fragment limiting geographics items to those in this WKT
  def contained_by_wkt_sql(wkt)
    if crosses_anti_meridian?(wkt)
      retval = contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(wkt)
    else
      retval = "ST_Contains(ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', 4326), (
    CASE geographic_items.type
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
    END
    )
  )"
    end
    retval
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String] sql for contained_by via ST_ContainsProperly
  # Note: Can not use GEOMETRY_SQL because geometry_collection is not supported in ST_ContainsProperly
  # Note: !! If the target GeographicItem#id crosses the anti-meridian then you may/will get unexpected results.
  def contained_by_where_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_Contains(
    #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
    CASE geographic_items.type
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
    END)"
  end

  # @param [RGeo:Point] rgeo_point
  # @return [String] sql for containing via ST_CoveredBy
  # TODO: Remove the hard coded 4326 reference
  # TODO: should this be wkt_point instead of rgeo_point?
  def containing_where_for_point_sql(rgeo_point)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
  ST_GeomFromText('#{rgeo_point}', 4326),
  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}
 )"
  end

  # @param [Interger] geographic_item_id
  # @return [String] SQL for geometries
  # example, not used
  def geometry_for_sql(geographic_item_id)
    'SELECT ' + GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry FROM geographic_items WHERE id = ' \
      "#{geographic_item_id} LIMIT 1"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String] SQL for geometries
  # example, not used
  def geometry_for_collection_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    'SELECT ' + GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry FROM geographic_items WHERE id IN ' \
      "( #{geographic_item_ids.join(',')} )"
  end

  #
  # Scopes
  #

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items containing these collective geographic_item ids, not including self
  def containing(*geographic_item_ids)
    where(GeographicItem.containing_where_sql(geographic_item_ids)).not_ids(*geographic_item_ids)
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items contained by any of these geographic_item ids, not including self
  # (works via ST_ContainsProperly)
  def contained_by(*geographic_item_ids)
    where(GeographicItem.contained_by_where_sql(geographic_item_ids))
  end

  # @param [RGeo::Point] rgeo_point
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items containing this point
  # TODO: should be containing_wkt ?
  def containing_point(rgeo_point)
    where(GeographicItem.containing_where_for_point_sql(rgeo_point))
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   adds an area_in_meters field, with meters
  def with_area
    select("ST_Area(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, false) as area_in_meters")
  end

  # return [Scope]
  #   A scope that limits the result to those GeographicItems that have a collecting event
  #   through either the geographic_item or the error_geographic_item
  #
  # A raw SQL join approach for comparison
  #
  # GeographicItem.joins('LEFT JOIN georeferences g1 ON geographic_items.id = g1.geographic_item_id').
  #   joins('LEFT JOIN georeferences g2 ON geographic_items.id = g2.error_geographic_item_id').
  #   where("(g1.geographic_item_id IS NOT NULL OR g2.error_geographic_item_id IS NOT NULL)").uniq

  # @return [Scope] GeographicItem
  # This uses an Arel table approach, this is ultimately more decomposable if we need. Of use:
  #  http://danshultz.github.io/talks/mastering_activerecord_arel  <- best
  #  https://github.com/rails/arel
  #  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4500629/use-arel-for-a-nested-set-join-query-and-convert-to-activerecordrelation
  #  http://rdoc.info/github/rails/arel/Arel/SelectManager
  #  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7976358/activerecord-arel-or-condition
  #
  def with_collecting_event_through_georeferences
    geographic_items = GeographicItem.arel_table
    georeferences = Georeference.arel_table
    g1 = georeferences.alias('a')
    g2 = georeferences.alias('b')

    c = geographic_items.join(g1, Arel::Nodes::OuterJoin).on(geographic_items[:id].eq(g1[:geographic_item_id]))
      .join(g2, Arel::Nodes::OuterJoin).on(geographic_items[:id].eq(g2[:error_geographic_item_id]))

    GeographicItem.joins(# turn the Arel back into scope
                         c.join_sources # translate the Arel join to a join hash(?)
                        ).where(
                          g1[:id].not_eq(nil).or(g2[:id].not_eq(nil)) # returns a Arel::Nodes::Grouping
                        ).distinct
  end

  # @return [Scope] include a 'latitude' column
  def with_latitude
    select(lat_long_sql(:latitude))
  end

  # @return [Scope] include a 'longitude' column
  def with_longitude
    select(lat_long_sql(:longitude))
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItems]
  # @return [Scope]
  def intersecting(column_name, *geographic_items)
    if column_name.downcase == 'any'
      pieces = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        pieces.push(GeographicItem.intersecting(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
      }

      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct

      GeographicItem.where(id: pieces.flatten.map(&:id))
    else
      q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
        "ST_Intersects(#{column_name}, '#{geographic_item.geo_object}'    )" # seems like we want this: http://danshultz.github.io/talks/mastering_activerecord_arel/#/15/2
      }.join(' or ')

      where(q)
    end
  end

  # @param [GeographicItem#id] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Float] distance in meters ?!?!
  # @return [ActiveRecord::Relation]
  # !! should be distance, not radius?!
  def within_radius_of_item(geographic_item_id, distance)
    where(within_radius_of_item_sql(geographic_item_id, distance))
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_DISJOINT, specifies all geographic_items that have data in column_name
  #   that are disjoint from the passed geographic_items
  def disjoint_from(column_name, *geographic_items)
    q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
      "ST_DISJOINT(#{column_name}::geometry, (#{geometry_sql(geographic_item.to_param,
                                                         geographic_item.geo_object_type)}))"
    }.join(' and ')

    where(q)
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   see are_contained_in_item_by_id
  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem, Array] geographic_items
  def are_contained_in_item(column_name, *geographic_items)
    are_contained_in_item_by_id(column_name, geographic_items.flatten.map(&:id))
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  # @param [String] column_name to search
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item_ids or array of geographic_item_ids to be tested.
  # @return [Scope] of GeographicItems
  #
  # If this scope is given an Array of GeographicItems as a second parameter,
  # it will return the 'OR' of each of the objects against the table.
  # SELECT COUNT(*) FROM "geographic_items"
  #        WHERE (ST_Contains(polygon::geometry, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;POINT (0.0 0.0 0.0)'))
  #               OR ST_Contains(polygon::geometry, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;POINT (-9.8 5.0 0.0)')))
  #
  def are_contained_in_item_by_id(column_name, *geographic_item_ids) # = containing
    geographic_item_ids.flatten! # in case there is a array of arrays, or multiple objects
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_item_by_id(column.to_s, geographic_item_ids).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_item_by_id("#{column}", geographic_item_ids).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))
    else
      q = geographic_item_ids.flatten.collect { |geographic_item_id|
        # discover the item types, and convert type to database type for 'multi_'
        b = GeographicItem.where(id: geographic_item_id)
          .pluck(:type)[0].split(':')[2].downcase.gsub('lti', 'lti_')
        # a = GeographicItem.find(geographic_item_id).geo_object_type
        GeographicItem.containing_sql(column_name, geographic_item_id, b)
      }.join(' or ')
      q = 'FALSE' if q.blank? # this will prevent the invocation of *ALL* of the GeographicItems, if there are
      # no GeographicItems in the request (see CollectingEvent.name_hash(types)).
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:enable Metrics/MethodLength

  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [String] geometry of WKT
  # @return [Scope]
  # a single WKT geometry is compared against column or columns (except geometry_collection) to find geographic_items
  # which are contained in the WKT
  def are_contained_in_wkt(column_name, geometry)
    column_name.downcase!
    # column_name = 'point'
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_wkt(column.to_s, geometry).pluck(:id).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten)
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_wkt("#{column}", geometry).pluck(:id).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten)
    else
      # column = points, geometry = square
      q = "ST_Contains(ST_GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geometry}'), #{column_name}::geometry)"
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  #    containing the items the shape of which is contained in the geographic_item[s] supplied.
  # @param column_name [String] can be any of DATA_TYPES, or 'any' to check against all types, 'any_poly' to check
  # against 'polygon' or 'multi_polygon', or 'any_line' to check against 'line_string' or 'multi_line_string'.
  #  CANNOT be 'geometry_collection'.
  # @param geographic_items [GeographicItem] Can be a single GeographicItem, or an array of GeographicItem.
  # @return [Scope]
  def is_contained_by(column_name, *geographic_items)
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.is_contained_by(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
        end
      }
      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))

    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
            part.push(GeographicItem.is_contained_by(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
          end
        end
      }
      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))

    else
      q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
        GeographicItem.reverse_containing_sql(column_name, geographic_item.to_param,
                                              geographic_item.geo_object_type)
      }.join(' or ')
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:enable Metrics/MethodLength

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def ordered_by_shortest_distance_from(column_name, geographic_item)
    if true # check_geo_params(column_name, geographic_item)
      select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
        .where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item).order('distance')
    else
      where('false')
    end
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def ordered_by_longest_distance_from(column_name, geographic_item)
    if true # check_geo_params(column_name, geographic_item)
      q = select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
        .where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item)
        .order('distance desc')
      q
    else
      where('false')
    end
  end

  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
  # @return [String]
  def select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
    select("*, ST_Distance(#{column_name}, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geographic_item.geo_object}')) as distance")
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item)
    where("#{column_name} is not null and ST_Distance(#{column_name}, " \
          "GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geographic_item.geo_object}')) > 0")
  end

  # @param [GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def not_including(geographic_items)
    where.not(id: geographic_items)
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   includes an 'is_valid' attribute (True/False) for the passed geographic_item.  Uses St_IsValid.
  # @param [RGeo object] geographic_item
  def with_is_valid_geometry_column(geographic_item)
    where(id: geographic_item.id).select("ST_IsValid(ST_AsBinary(#{geographic_item.geo_object_type})) is_valid")
  end

  #
  # Other
  #

  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id1
  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id2
  # @return [Float]
  def distance_between(geographic_item_id1, geographic_item_id2)
    q1 = "ST_Distance(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, " \
      "(#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id2)})) as distance"
    _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(
      :sanitize_sql_array, ['ST_Distance(?, (?)) as distance',
                            GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL,
                            select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id2)])
    GeographicItem.where(id: geographic_item_id1).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
  end

  # @param [RGeo::Point] point
  # @return [Hash]
  #   as per #inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy but for Rgeo point
  def point_inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy(point)
    GeographicItem.containing_point(point).order(cached_total_area: :ASC).limit(1).first&.inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy
  end

  # @param [String] type_name ('polygon', 'point', 'line' [, 'circle'])
  # @return [String] if type
  def eval_for_type(type_name)
    retval = 'GeographicItem'
    case type_name.upcase
    when 'POLYGON'
      retval += '::Polygon'
    when 'LINESTRING'
      retval += '::LineString'
    when 'POINT'
      retval += '::Point'
    when 'MULTIPOLYGON'
      retval += '::MultiPolygon'
    when 'MULTILINESTRING'
      retval += '::MultiLineString'
    when 'MULTIPOINT'
      retval += '::MultiPoint'
    else
      retval = nil
    end
    retval
  end

  # example, not used
  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @return [RGeo::Geographic object]
  def geometry_for(geographic_item_id)
    GeographicItem.select(GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry').find(geographic_item_id)['geometry']
  end

  # example, not used
  # @param [Integer, Array] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  def st_multi(*geographic_item_ids)
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
      "SELECT ST_Multi(ST_Collect(g.the_geom)) AS singlegeom
 FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DUMP(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql})).geom AS the_geom
    FROM geographic_items
    WHERE id IN (?))
  AS g;", geographic_item_ids.flatten
    )
  end
end # class << self

# @return [Hash]
#    a geographic_name_classification or empty Hash
# This is a quick approach that works only when
# the geographic_item is linked explicitly to a GeographicArea.
#
# !! Note that it is not impossible for a GeographicItem to be linked
# to > 1 GeographicArea, in that case we are assuming that all are
# equally refined, this might not be the case in the future because
# of how the GeographicArea gazetteer is indexed.
def quick_geographic_name_hierarchy
  geographic_areas.order(:id).each do |ga|
    h = ga.geographic_name_classification # not quick enough !!
    return h if h.present?
  end
  return  {}
end

# @return [Hash]
#   a geographic_name_classification (see GeographicArea) inferred by
# finding the smallest area containing this GeographicItem, in the most accurate gazetteer
# and using it to return country/state/county. See also the logic in
# filling in missing levels in GeographicArea.
def inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy
  if small_area = containing_geographic_areas
    .joins(:geographic_areas_geographic_items)
    .merge(GeographicAreasGeographicItem.ordered_by_data_origin)
    .ordered_by_area
    .limit(1)
    .first
  return small_area.geographic_name_classification
  else
    {}
  end
end

def geographic_name_hierarchy
  a = quick_geographic_name_hierarchy # quick; almost never the case, UI not setup to do this
  return a if a.present?
  inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy # slow
end

# @return [Scope]
#   the Geographic Areas that contain (gis) this geographic item
def containing_geographic_areas
  GeographicArea.joins(:geographic_items).includes(:geographic_area_type)
    .joins("JOIN (#{GeographicItem.containing(id).to_sql}) j on geographic_items.id = j.id")
end

# @return [Boolean]
#   whether stored shape is ST_IsValid
def valid_geometry?
  GeographicItem.with_is_valid_geometry_column(self).first['is_valid']
end

# @return [Array of latitude, longitude]
#    the lat, lon of the first point in the GeoItem, see subclass for #st_start_point
def start_point
  o = st_start_point
  [o.y, o.x]
end

# @return [Array]
#   the lat, long, as STRINGs for the centroid of this geographic item
#   Meh- this: https://postgis.net/docs/en/ST_MinimumBoundingRadius.html
def center_coords
  r = GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
    "Select split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}), " \
    "'D.DDDDDD'), ' ', 1) latitude, split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid" \
    "(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}), 'D.DDDDDD'), ' ', 2) " \
    "longitude from geographic_items where id = #{id};")[0]

  [r.latitude, r.longitude]
end

# @return [RGeo::Geographic::ProjectedPointImpl]
#    representing the centroid of this geographic item
def centroid
  # Gis::FACTORY.point(*center_coords.reverse)
  return geo_object if type == 'GeographicItem::Point'
  return Gis::FACTORY.parse_wkt(self.st_centroid)
end

# @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
# @return [Double] distance in meters (slower, more accurate)
def st_distance(geographic_item_id) # geo_object
  q1 = "ST_Distance((#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(id)}), " \
    "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)})) as d"
  _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['ST_Distance((?),(?)) as d',
                                                      GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(self.id),
                                                      GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)])
  deg = GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
  deg * Utilities::Geo::ONE_WEST
end

# @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
# @return [Double] distance in meters
# Like st_distance but works with changed and non persisted objects
def st_distance_to_geographic_item(geographic_item)
  unless !persisted? || changed?
    a = "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(id)})"
  else
    a = "ST_GeographyFromText('#{geo_object}')"
  end

  unless !geographic_item.persisted? || geographic_item.changed?
    b = "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item.id)})"
  else
    b = "ST_GeographyFromText('#{geographic_item.geo_object}')"
  end

  ActiveRecord::Base.connection.select_value("SELECT ST_Distance(#{a}, #{b})")
end

alias_method :distance_to, :st_distance

# @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
# @return [Double] distance in meters (faster, less accurate)
def st_distance_spheroid(geographic_item_id)
  q1 = "ST_DistanceSpheroid((#{GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(id)})," \
    "(#{GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id)}),'#{Gis::SPHEROID}') as distance"
  _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array,
                                ['ST_DistanceSpheroid((?),(?),?) as distance',
                                 GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(id),
                                 GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id),
                                 Gis::SPHEROID])
  # TODO: what is _q2?
  GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
end

# @return [String]
#   a WKT POINT representing the centroid of the geographic item
def st_centroid
  GeographicItem.where(id: to_param).pluck(Arel.sql("ST_AsEWKT(ST_Centroid(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}))")).first.gsub(/SRID=\d*;/, '')
end

# @return [Integer]
#   the number of points in the geometry
def st_npoints
  GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql("ST_NPoints(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as npoints")).first
end

# @return [Symbol]
#   the geo type (i.e. column like :point, :multipolygon).  References the first-found object,
# according to the list of DATA_TYPES, or nil
def geo_object_type
  if self.class.name == 'GeographicItem' # a proxy check for new records
    geo_type
  else
    self.class::SHAPE_COLUMN
  end
end

# !!TODO: migrate these to use native column calls

# @return [RGeo instance, nil]
#  the Rgeo shape (See http://rubydoc.info/github/dazuma/rgeo/RGeo/Feature)
def geo_object
  begin
    if r = geo_object_type # rubocop:disable Lint/AssignmentInCondition
      send(r)
    else
      false
    end
  rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry
    return nil # TODO: we need to render proper error for this!
  end
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def contains?(target_geo_object)
  return nil if target_geo_object.nil?
  self.geo_object.contains?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def within?(target_geo_object)
  self.geo_object.within?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def intersects?(target_geo_object)
  self.geo_object.intersects?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object, Double]
# @return [Boolean]
def near(target_geo_object, distance)
  self.geo_object.unsafe_buffer(distance).contains?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object, Double]
# @return [Boolean]
def far(target_geo_object, distance)
  !near(target_geo_object, distance)
end

# @return [GeoJSON hash]
#    via Rgeo apparently necessary for GeometryCollection
def rgeo_to_geo_json
  RGeo::GeoJSON.encode(geo_object).to_json
end

# @return [Hash]
#   in GeoJSON format
#   Computed via "raw" PostGIS (much faster). This
#   requires the geo_object_type and id.
#
def to_geo_json
  JSON.parse(
    GeographicItem.connection.select_one(
      "SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(#{geo_object_type}::geometry) a " \
      "FROM geographic_items WHERE id=#{id};")['a'])
end

# We don't need to serialize to/from JSON
def to_geo_json_string
  GeographicItem.connection.select_one(
    "SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(#{geo_object_type}::geometry) a " \
    "FROM geographic_items WHERE id=#{id};")['a']
end

# @return [Hash]
#   the shape as a GeoJSON Feature with some item metadata
def to_geo_json_feature
  @geometry ||= to_geo_json
  {'type' => 'Feature',
   'geometry' => geometry,
   'properties' => {
     'geographic_item' => {
       'id' => id}
   }
  }
end

# @param value [String] like:
#   '{"type":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"Point","coordinates":[2.5,4.0]},"properties":{"color":"red"}}'
#
#   '{"type":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"Polygon","coordinates":"[[[-125.29394388198853, 48.584480409793],
#      [-67.11035013198853, 45.09937589848195],[-80.64550638198853, 25.01924647619111],[-117.55956888198853,
#      32.5591595028449],[-125.29394388198853, 48.584480409793]]]"},"properties":{}}'
#
#  '{"type":"Point","coordinates":[2.5,4.0]},"properties":{"color":"red"}}'
#
# @return [Boolean, RGeo object]
def shape=(value)

  if value.present?

    begin
      geom = RGeo::GeoJSON.decode(value, json_parser: :json, geo_factory: Gis::FACTORY)
    rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry => e
      errors.add(:base, "invalid geometry: #{e.to_s}")
      return
    end

    this_type = nil

    if geom.respond_to?(:geometry_type)
      this_type = geom.geometry_type.to_s
    elsif geom.respond_to?(:geometry)
      this_type = geom.geometry.geometry_type.to_s
    else
    end

    self.type = GeographicItem.eval_for_type(this_type) unless geom.nil?

    if type.blank?
      errors.add(:base, 'type is not set from shape')
      return
    end

    object = nil

    s = geom.respond_to?(:geometry) ? geom.geometry.to_s : geom.to_s

    begin
      object = Gis::FACTORY.parse_wkt(s)
    rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry
      errors.add(:self, 'Shape value is an Invalid Geometry')
    end

    write_attribute(this_type.underscore.to_sym, object)
    geom
  end
end

# @return [String]
def to_wkt
  #  10k  #<Benchmark::Tms:0x00007fb0dfd30fd0 @label="", @real=25.237487000005785, @cstime=0.0, @cutime=0.0, @stime=1.1704609999999995, @utime=5.507929999999988, @total=6.678390999999987>
  #  GeographicItem.select("ST_AsText( #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) wkt").where(id: id).first.wkt

  # 10k <Benchmark::Tms:0x00007fb0e02f7540 @label="", @real=21.619827999995323, @cstime=0.0, @cutime=0.0, @stime=0.8850890000000007, @utime=3.2958549999999605, @total=4.180943999999961>
  if a =  ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_AsText( #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} ) wkt from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first
    return a['wkt']
  else
    return nil
  end
end

# @return  [Float] in meters, calculated
# TODO: share with world
#    Geographic item 96862 (Cajamar in Brazil) is the only(?) record to fail using `false` (quicker) method of everything we tested
def area
  a = GeographicItem.where(id:).select("ST_Area(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, true) as area_in_meters").first['area_in_meters']
  a = nil if a.nan?
  a
end

# @return [Float, false]
#    the value in square meters of the interesecting area of this and another GeographicItem
def intersecting_area(geographic_item_id)
  a = GeographicItem.aliased_geographic_sql('a')
  b = GeographicItem.aliased_geographic_sql('b')

  c = GeographicItem.connection.execute(
    "SELECT ST_Area(ST_Intersection(#{a}, #{b})) as intersecting_area
      FROM geographic_items a, geographic_items b
      WHERE a.id = #{id} AND b.id = #{geographic_item_id};"
  ).first
  c && c['intersecting_area'].to_f
end

# TODO: This is bad, while internal use of ONE_WEST_MEAN is consistent it is in-accurate given the vast differences of radius vs. lat/long position.
# When we strike the error-polygon from radius we should remove this
#
# Use case is returning the radius from a circle we calculated via buffer for error-polygon creation.
def radius
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_MinimumBoundingRadius( ST_Transform(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}, 4326 )  ) AS radius from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['radius'].split(',').last.chop.to_f
  r = (r * Utilities::Geo::ONE_WEST_MEAN).to_i
end


# Convention is to store in PostGIS in CCW
# @return Array [Boolean]
#   false - cw
#   true - ccw (preferred), except cee donuts
def orientations
  if multi_polygon.present?
    ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(" \
         SELECT ST_IsPolygonCCW(a.geom) as is_ccw
            FROM ( SELECT b.id, (ST_Dump(p_geom)).geom AS geom
               FROM (SELECT id, multi_polygon::geometry AS p_geom FROM geographic_items where id = #{id}) AS b \
          ) AS a;").collect{|a| a['is_ccw']}
  elsif polygon.present?
    ApplicationRecord.connection.execute("SELECT ST_IsPolygonCCW(polygon::geometry) as is_ccw \
            FROM geographic_items where  id = #{id};").collect{|a| a['is_ccw']}
  else
    []
  end
end

# @return Boolean
#   looks at all orientations
#   if they follow the pattern [true, false, ... <all false>] then `true`, else `false`
# !! Does not confirm that shapes are nested !!
def is_basic_donut?
  a = orientations
  b = a.shift
  return false unless b
  a.uniq!
  a == [false]
end

def st_isvalid
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_IsValid(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql }) from  geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['st_isvalid']
end

def st_isvalidreason
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_IsValidReason(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql }) from  geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['st_isvalidreason']
end

# !! Unused. Doesn't check Geometry collection
def has_polygons?
  ['GeographicItem::MultiPolygon', 'GeographicItem::Polygon'].include?(self.type)
end

private

def align_winding
  if orientations.flatten.include?(false)
    case type
    when 'multi_polygon'
      ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(
        "UPDATE geographic_items set multi_polygon = ST_ForcePolygonCCW(multi_polygon::geometry) 
          WHERE id = #{self.id};"
       )
    when 'polygon'
     ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(
        "UPDATE geographic_items set polygon = ST_ForcePolygonCCW(polygon::geometry) 
          WHERE id = #{self.id};"
       )
    end     
  end
  true
end

# Crude debuging helper, write the shapes
# to a png
def self.debug_draw(geographic_item_ids = [])
  return false if geographic_item_ids.empty?

  sql = "SELECT ST_AsPNG(
     ST_AsRaster(
        (SELECT ST_Union(multi_polygon::geometry) from geographic_items where id IN (" + geographic_item_ids.join(',') + ")), 1920, 1080
    )
   ) png;"

  # ST_Buffer( multi_polygon::geometry, 0, 'join=bevel'),
  #     1920,
  #     1080)


  result = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.execute(sql).first['png']
  r = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.unescape_bytea(result)

  prefix = if geographic_item_ids.size > 10
             'multiple'
           else
             geographic_item_ids.join('_') + '_debug.draw.png'
           end

  n = prefix + '_debug.draw.png'

  # Open the file in binary write mode ("wb")
  File.open(n, 'wb') do |file|
    # Write the binary data to the file
    file.write(r)
  end
end

# def png

#   if ids = Otu.joins(:cached_map_items).first.cached_map_items.pluck(:geographic_item_id)

#     sql = "SELECT ST_AsPNG(
#    ST_AsRaster(
#        ST_Buffer( multi_polygon::geometry, 0, 'join=bevel'),
#            1024,
#            768)
#     ) png
#        from geographic_items where id IN (" + ids.join(',') + ');'

#     # hack, not the best way to unpack result
#     result = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.execute(sql).first['png']
#     r = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.unescape_bytea(result)

#     send_data r, filename: 'foo.png', type: 'imnage/png'

#   else
#     render json: {foo: false}
#   end
# end

def set_cached
  update_column(:cached_total_area, area)
end

# @return [Symbol]
#   returns the attribute (column name) containing data
#   nearly all methods should use #geo_object_type, not geo_type
def geo_type
  DATA_TYPES.each { |item|
    return item if send(item)
  }
  nil
end

# @return [Boolean, String] false if already set, or type to which it was set
def set_type_if_geography_present
  if type.blank?
    column = geo_type
    self.type = "GeographicItem::#{column.to_s.camelize}" if column
  end
end

# @param [RGeo::Point] point
# @return [Array] of a point
#   Longitude |, Latitude -
def point_to_a(point)
  data = []
  data.push(point.x, point.y)
  data
end

# @param [RGeo::Point] point
# @return [Hash] of a point
def point_to_hash(point)
  {points: [point_to_a(point)]}
end

# @param [RGeo::MultiPoint] multi_point
# @return [Array] of points
def multi_point_to_a(multi_point)
  data = []
  multi_point.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of points
def multi_point_to_hash(_multi_point)
  # when we encounter a multi_point type, we only stick the points into the array, NOT it's identity as a group
  {points: multi_point_to_a(multi_point)}
end

# @param [Reo::LineString] line_string
# @return [Array] of points in the line
def line_string_to_a(line_string)
  data = []
  line_string.points.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @param [Reo::LineString] line_string
# @return [Hash] of points in the line
def line_string_to_hash(line_string)
  {lines: [line_string_to_a(line_string)]}
end

# @param [RGeo::Polygon] polygon
# @return [Array] of points in the polygon (exterior_ring ONLY)
def polygon_to_a(polygon)
  # TODO: handle other parts of the polygon; i.e., the interior_rings (if they exist)
  data = []
  polygon.exterior_ring.points.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @param [RGeo::Polygon] polygon
# @return [Hash] of points in the polygon (exterior_ring ONLY)
def polygon_to_hash(polygon)
  {polygons: [polygon_to_a(polygon)]}
end

# @return [Array] of line_strings as arrays of points
# @param [RGeo::MultiLineString] multi_line_string
def multi_line_string_to_a(multi_line_string)
  data = []
  multi_line_string.each { |line_string|
    line_data = []
    line_string.points.each { |point|
      line_data.push([point.x, point.y])
    }
    data.push(line_data)
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of line_strings as hashes of points
def multi_line_string_to_hash(_multi_line_string)
  {lines: to_a}
end

# @param [RGeo::MultiPolygon] multi_polygon
# @return [Array] of arrays of points in the polygons (exterior_ring ONLY)
def multi_polygon_to_a(multi_polygon)
  data = []
  multi_polygon.each { |polygon|
    polygon_data = []
    polygon.exterior_ring.points.each { |point|
      polygon_data.push([point.x, point.y])
    }
    data.push(polygon_data)
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of hashes of points in the polygons (exterior_ring ONLY)
def multi_polygon_to_hash(_multi_polygon)
  {polygons: to_a}
end

# @return [Boolean] iff there is one and only one shape column set
def some_data_is_provided
  data = []

  DATA_TYPES.each do |item|
    data.push(item) if send(item).present?
  end

  case data.count
  when 0
    errors.add(:base, 'No shape provided or provided shape is invalid')
  when 1
    return true
  else
    data.each do |object|
      errors.add(object, 'More than one shape type provided')
    end
  end
  true
end
end

#multi_line_stringRGeo::Geographic::ProjectedMultiLineStringImpl

Returns:

  • (RGeo::Geographic::ProjectedMultiLineStringImpl)


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# File 'app/models/geographic_item.rb', line 40

class GeographicItem < ApplicationRecord
  include Housekeeping::Users
  include Housekeeping::Timestamps
  include Shared::HasPapertrail
  include Shared::IsData
  include Shared::SharedAcrossProjects

  # @return [Hash, nil]
  #   An internal variable for use in super calls, holds a Hash in GeoJSON format (temporarily)
  attr_accessor :geometry

  # @return [Boolean, RGeo object]
  # @params value [Hash in GeoJSON format] ?!
  # TODO: WHY! boolean not nil, or object
  # Used to build geographic items from a shape [ of what class ] !?
  attr_accessor :shape

  # @return [Boolean]
  #   When true cached values are not built
  attr_accessor :no_cached

  DATA_TYPES = [
:point,
:line_string,
:polygon,
:multi_point,
:multi_line_string,
:multi_polygon,
:geometry_collection
  ].freeze

  GEOMETRY_SQL = Arel::Nodes::Case.new(arel_table[:type])
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPolygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Point').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::LineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Polygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiLineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPoint').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::GeometryCollection').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:geometry_collection].as('geometry')]))
.freeze

  GEOGRAPHY_SQL = "CASE geographic_items.type
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN geometry_collection
END".freeze

# ANTI_MERIDIAN = '0X0102000020E61000000200000000000000008066400000000000405640000000000080664000000000004056C0'
ANTI_MERIDIAN = 'LINESTRING (180 89.0, 180 -89)'.freeze

has_many :cached_map_items, inverse_of: :geographic_item

has_many :geographic_areas_geographic_items, dependent: :destroy, inverse_of: :geographic_item
has_many :geographic_areas, through: :geographic_areas_geographic_items
has_many :asserted_distributions, through: :geographic_areas
has_many :geographic_area_types, through: :geographic_areas
has_many :parent_geographic_areas, through: :geographic_areas, source: :parent

has_many :georeferences, inverse_of: :geographic_item
has_many :georeferences_through_error_geographic_item,
  class_name: 'Georeference', foreign_key: :error_geographic_item_id, inverse_of: :error_geographic_item
has_many :collecting_events_through_georeferences, through: :georeferences, source: :collecting_event
has_many :collecting_events_through_georeference_error_geographic_item,
  through: :georeferences_through_error_geographic_item, source: :collecting_event

# TODO: THIS IS NOT GOOD
before_validation :set_type_if_geography_present

validate :some_data_is_provided
validates :type, presence: true # not needed

scope :include_collecting_event, -> { includes(:collecting_events_through_georeferences) }
scope :geo_with_collecting_event, -> { joins(:collecting_events_through_georeferences) }
scope :err_with_collecting_event, -> { joins(:georeferences_through_error_geographic_item) }

after_save :set_cached, unless: Proc.new {|n| n.no_cached || errors.any? }
after_save :align_winding

class << self

  def aliased_geographic_sql(name = 'a')
    "CASE #{name}.type \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN #{name}.multi_polygon \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN #{name}.point \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN #{name}.line_string \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN #{name}.polygon \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN #{name}.multi_line_string \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN #{name}.multi_point \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN #{name}.geometry_collection \
     END"
  end

  def st_union(geographic_item_scope)
    GeographicItem.select("ST_Union(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as collection")
      .where(id: geographic_item_scope.pluck(:id))
  end

  def st_collect(geographic_item_scope)
    GeographicItem.select("ST_Collect(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as collection")
      .where(id: geographic_item_scope.pluck(:id))
  end

  # @return [GeographicItem::ActiveRecord_Relation]
  # @params [Array] array of geographic area ids
  def default_by_geographic_area_ids(geographic_area_ids = [])
    GeographicItem.
      joins(:geographic_areas_geographic_items).
      merge(::GeographicAreasGeographicItem.default_geographic_item_data).
      where(geographic_areas_geographic_items: {geographic_area_id: geographic_area_ids})
  end

  # @param [String] wkt
  # @return [Boolean]
  #   whether or not the wtk intersects with the anti-meridian
  #   !! StrongParams security considerations
  def crosses_anti_meridian?(wkt)
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
      ['SELECT ST_Intersects(ST_GeogFromText(?), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', wkt, ANTI_MERIDIAN]
    ).first.r
  end

  # @param [Integer] ids
  # @return [Boolean]
  #   whether or not any GeographicItem passed intersects the anti-meridian
  #   !! StrongParams security considerations
  #   This is our first line of defense against queries that define multiple shapes, one or
  #   more of which crosses the anti-meridian.  In this case the current TW strategy within the
  #   UI is to abandon the search, and prompt the user to refactor the query.
  def crosses_anti_meridian_by_id?(*ids)
    q1 = ["SELECT ST_Intersects((SELECT single_geometry FROM (#{GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(*ids)}) as " \
          'left_intersect), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', ANTI_MERIDIAN]
    _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['SELECT ST_Intersects((SELECT single_geometry FROM (?) as ' \
                                                        'left_intersect), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(*ids), ANTI_MERIDIAN])
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(q1).first.r
  end

  #
  # SQL fragments
  #

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL select statement that returns the *geometry* for the geographic_item with the specified id
  def select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id)
    "SELECT #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{geographic_item_id}"
  end

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL select statement that returns the geography for the geographic_item with the specified id
  def select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)
    ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_for_conditions, [
      "SELECT #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = ?",
      geographic_item_id])
  end

  # @param [Symbol] choice
  # @return [String]
  #   a fragment returning either latitude or longitude columns
  def lat_long_sql(choice)
    return nil unless [:latitude, :longitude].include?(choice)
    f = "'D.DDDDDD'" # TODO: probably a constant somewhere
    v = (choice == :latitude ? 1 : 2)
    "CASE geographic_items.type
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid" \
  "(geometry_collection::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid(line_string::geometry), " \
  "#{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_polygon::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(point::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(polygon::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_line_string::geometry), #{f} ), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_point::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
END as #{choice}"
  end

  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Integer] distance
  # @return [String]
  def within_radius_of_item_sql(geographic_item_id, distance)
    "ST_DWithin((#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}), (#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)}), #{distance})"
  end


  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Number] distance in meters to grow/shrink the shape (negative allowed)
  # @param [Number] distance (in meters) (positive only?!)
  # @return [String]
  def st_buffer_st_within(geographic_item_id, distance, buffer = 0)
    "ST_DWithin(
    ST_Buffer(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, #{buffer}),
    (#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)}), #{distance}
   )"
  end


  # TODO: 3D is overkill here
  # @param [String] wkt
  # @param [Integer] distance (meters)
  # @return [String]
  # !! This is intersecting
  def intersecting_radius_of_wkt_sql(wkt, distance)
    "ST_DWithin((#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}), ST_Transform( ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', " \
      "4326), 4326), #{distance})"
  end

  # @param [String] wkt
  # @param [Integer] distance (meters)
  # @return [String]
  # !! This is fully covering
  def within_radius_of_wkt_sql(wkt, distance)
    "ST_Covers( ST_Buffer(ST_SetSRID( ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}'), 4326)::geography, #{distance}), (#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}))"
  end

  # @param [String, Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_Contains() function, returns
  #   all geographic items which are contained in the item supplied
  def containing_sql(target_column_name = nil, geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil? || target_column_name.nil?
    "ST_Contains(#{target_column_name}::geometry, (#{geometry_sql(geographic_item_id, source_column_name)}))"
  end

  # @param [String, Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_Contains(), returns
  #   all geographic_items which contain the supplied geographic_item
  def reverse_containing_sql(target_column_name = nil, geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil? || target_column_name.nil?
    "ST_Contains((#{geometry_sql(geographic_item_id, source_column_name)}), #{target_column_name}::geometry)"
  end

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment that represents the geometry of the geographic item specified (which has data in the
  # source_column_name, i.e. geo_object_type)
  def geometry_sql(geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil?
    "select geom_alias_tbl.#{source_column_name}::geometry from geographic_items geom_alias_tbl " \
      "where geom_alias_tbl.id = #{geographic_item_id}"
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
  # @return [String] of SQL
  def is_contained_by_sql(column_name, geographic_item)
    geo_id = geographic_item.id
    geo_type = geographic_item.geo_object_type
    template = '(ST_Contains((select geographic_items.%s::geometry from geographic_items where ' \
      'geographic_items.id = %d), %s::geometry))'
    retval = []
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          retval.push(template % [geo_type, geo_id, column])
        end
      }
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
            retval.push(template % [geo_type, geo_id, column])
          end
        end
      }
    else
      retval = template % [geo_type, geo_id, column_name]
    end
    retval = retval.join(' OR ') if retval.instance_of?(Array)
    retval
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #   a select query that returns a single geometry (column name 'single_geometry' for the collection of ids
  # provided via ST_Collect)
  def st_collect_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    geographic_item_ids.flatten!
    ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_for_conditions, [
      "SELECT ST_Collect(f.the_geom) AS single_geometry
 FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DUMP(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql})).geom as the_geom
    FROM geographic_items
    WHERE id in (?))
  AS f", geographic_item_ids])
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #    returns one or more geographic items combined as a single geometry in column 'single'
  def single_geometry_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    a = GeographicItem.st_collect_sql(geographic_item_ids)
    '(SELECT single.single_geometry FROM (' + a + ' ) AS single)'
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #   returns a single geometry "column" (paren wrapped) as "single" for multiple geographic item ids, or the
  # geometry as 'geometry' for a single id
  def geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)
    geographic_item_ids.flatten! # *ALWAYS* reduce the pile to a single level of ids
    if geographic_item_ids.count == 1
      "(#{GeographicItem.geometry_for_sql(geographic_item_ids.first)})"
    else
      GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(geographic_item_ids)
    end
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  def containing_where_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
      #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
       CASE geographic_items.type
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
      END)"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  def containing_where_sql_geog(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
      #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
       CASE geographic_items.type
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geography
      END)"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] ids
  # @return [Array]
  #   If we detect that some query id has crossed the meridian, then loop through
  #   and "manually" build up a list of results.
  #   Should only be used if GeographicItem.crosses_anti_meridian_by_id? is true.
  #   Note that this does not return a Scope, so you can't chain it like contained_by?
  # TODO: test this
  def contained_by_with_antimeridian_check(*ids)
    ids.flatten! # make sure there is only one level of splat (*)
    results = []

    crossing_ids = []

    ids.each do |id|
      # push each which crosses
      crossing_ids.push(id) if GeographicItem.crosses_anti_meridian_by_id?(id)
    end

    non_crossing_ids = ids - crossing_ids
    results.push GeographicItem.contained_by(non_crossing_ids).to_a if non_crossing_ids.any?

    crossing_ids.each do |id|
      # [61666, 61661, 61659, 61654, 61639]
      q1 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['SELECT ST_AsText((SELECT polygon FROM geographic_items ' \
                                                         'WHERE id = ?))', id])
      r = GeographicItem.where(
        # GeographicItem.contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(GeographicItem.find(id).geo_object.to_s)
        GeographicItem.contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(
          ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(q1).first['st_astext'])
      ).to_a
      results.push(r)
    end

    results.flatten.uniq
  end

  # @params [String] well known text
  # @return [String] the SQL fragment for the specific geometry type, shifted by longitude
  # Note: this routine is called when it is already known that the A argument crosses anti-meridian
  def contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(wkt)
    "ST_Contains(ST_ShiftLongitude(ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', 4326)), (
    CASE geographic_items.type
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_polygon::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(point::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(line_string::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(polygon::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_line_string::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_point::geometry)
    END
    )
  )"
  end

  # TODO: Remove the hard coded 4326 reference
  # @params [String] wkt
  # @return [String] SQL fragment limiting geographics items to those in this WKT
  def contained_by_wkt_sql(wkt)
    if crosses_anti_meridian?(wkt)
      retval = contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(wkt)
    else
      retval = "ST_Contains(ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', 4326), (
    CASE geographic_items.type
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
    END
    )
  )"
    end
    retval
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String] sql for contained_by via ST_ContainsProperly
  # Note: Can not use GEOMETRY_SQL because geometry_collection is not supported in ST_ContainsProperly
  # Note: !! If the target GeographicItem#id crosses the anti-meridian then you may/will get unexpected results.
  def contained_by_where_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_Contains(
    #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
    CASE geographic_items.type
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
    END)"
  end

  # @param [RGeo:Point] rgeo_point
  # @return [String] sql for containing via ST_CoveredBy
  # TODO: Remove the hard coded 4326 reference
  # TODO: should this be wkt_point instead of rgeo_point?
  def containing_where_for_point_sql(rgeo_point)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
  ST_GeomFromText('#{rgeo_point}', 4326),
  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}
 )"
  end

  # @param [Interger] geographic_item_id
  # @return [String] SQL for geometries
  # example, not used
  def geometry_for_sql(geographic_item_id)
    'SELECT ' + GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry FROM geographic_items WHERE id = ' \
      "#{geographic_item_id} LIMIT 1"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String] SQL for geometries
  # example, not used
  def geometry_for_collection_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    'SELECT ' + GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry FROM geographic_items WHERE id IN ' \
      "( #{geographic_item_ids.join(',')} )"
  end

  #
  # Scopes
  #

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items containing these collective geographic_item ids, not including self
  def containing(*geographic_item_ids)
    where(GeographicItem.containing_where_sql(geographic_item_ids)).not_ids(*geographic_item_ids)
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items contained by any of these geographic_item ids, not including self
  # (works via ST_ContainsProperly)
  def contained_by(*geographic_item_ids)
    where(GeographicItem.contained_by_where_sql(geographic_item_ids))
  end

  # @param [RGeo::Point] rgeo_point
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items containing this point
  # TODO: should be containing_wkt ?
  def containing_point(rgeo_point)
    where(GeographicItem.containing_where_for_point_sql(rgeo_point))
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   adds an area_in_meters field, with meters
  def with_area
    select("ST_Area(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, false) as area_in_meters")
  end

  # return [Scope]
  #   A scope that limits the result to those GeographicItems that have a collecting event
  #   through either the geographic_item or the error_geographic_item
  #
  # A raw SQL join approach for comparison
  #
  # GeographicItem.joins('LEFT JOIN georeferences g1 ON geographic_items.id = g1.geographic_item_id').
  #   joins('LEFT JOIN georeferences g2 ON geographic_items.id = g2.error_geographic_item_id').
  #   where("(g1.geographic_item_id IS NOT NULL OR g2.error_geographic_item_id IS NOT NULL)").uniq

  # @return [Scope] GeographicItem
  # This uses an Arel table approach, this is ultimately more decomposable if we need. Of use:
  #  http://danshultz.github.io/talks/mastering_activerecord_arel  <- best
  #  https://github.com/rails/arel
  #  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4500629/use-arel-for-a-nested-set-join-query-and-convert-to-activerecordrelation
  #  http://rdoc.info/github/rails/arel/Arel/SelectManager
  #  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7976358/activerecord-arel-or-condition
  #
  def with_collecting_event_through_georeferences
    geographic_items = GeographicItem.arel_table
    georeferences = Georeference.arel_table
    g1 = georeferences.alias('a')
    g2 = georeferences.alias('b')

    c = geographic_items.join(g1, Arel::Nodes::OuterJoin).on(geographic_items[:id].eq(g1[:geographic_item_id]))
      .join(g2, Arel::Nodes::OuterJoin).on(geographic_items[:id].eq(g2[:error_geographic_item_id]))

    GeographicItem.joins(# turn the Arel back into scope
                         c.join_sources # translate the Arel join to a join hash(?)
                        ).where(
                          g1[:id].not_eq(nil).or(g2[:id].not_eq(nil)) # returns a Arel::Nodes::Grouping
                        ).distinct
  end

  # @return [Scope] include a 'latitude' column
  def with_latitude
    select(lat_long_sql(:latitude))
  end

  # @return [Scope] include a 'longitude' column
  def with_longitude
    select(lat_long_sql(:longitude))
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItems]
  # @return [Scope]
  def intersecting(column_name, *geographic_items)
    if column_name.downcase == 'any'
      pieces = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        pieces.push(GeographicItem.intersecting(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
      }

      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct

      GeographicItem.where(id: pieces.flatten.map(&:id))
    else
      q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
        "ST_Intersects(#{column_name}, '#{geographic_item.geo_object}'    )" # seems like we want this: http://danshultz.github.io/talks/mastering_activerecord_arel/#/15/2
      }.join(' or ')

      where(q)
    end
  end

  # @param [GeographicItem#id] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Float] distance in meters ?!?!
  # @return [ActiveRecord::Relation]
  # !! should be distance, not radius?!
  def within_radius_of_item(geographic_item_id, distance)
    where(within_radius_of_item_sql(geographic_item_id, distance))
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_DISJOINT, specifies all geographic_items that have data in column_name
  #   that are disjoint from the passed geographic_items
  def disjoint_from(column_name, *geographic_items)
    q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
      "ST_DISJOINT(#{column_name}::geometry, (#{geometry_sql(geographic_item.to_param,
                                                         geographic_item.geo_object_type)}))"
    }.join(' and ')

    where(q)
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   see are_contained_in_item_by_id
  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem, Array] geographic_items
  def are_contained_in_item(column_name, *geographic_items)
    are_contained_in_item_by_id(column_name, geographic_items.flatten.map(&:id))
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  # @param [String] column_name to search
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item_ids or array of geographic_item_ids to be tested.
  # @return [Scope] of GeographicItems
  #
  # If this scope is given an Array of GeographicItems as a second parameter,
  # it will return the 'OR' of each of the objects against the table.
  # SELECT COUNT(*) FROM "geographic_items"
  #        WHERE (ST_Contains(polygon::geometry, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;POINT (0.0 0.0 0.0)'))
  #               OR ST_Contains(polygon::geometry, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;POINT (-9.8 5.0 0.0)')))
  #
  def are_contained_in_item_by_id(column_name, *geographic_item_ids) # = containing
    geographic_item_ids.flatten! # in case there is a array of arrays, or multiple objects
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_item_by_id(column.to_s, geographic_item_ids).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_item_by_id("#{column}", geographic_item_ids).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))
    else
      q = geographic_item_ids.flatten.collect { |geographic_item_id|
        # discover the item types, and convert type to database type for 'multi_'
        b = GeographicItem.where(id: geographic_item_id)
          .pluck(:type)[0].split(':')[2].downcase.gsub('lti', 'lti_')
        # a = GeographicItem.find(geographic_item_id).geo_object_type
        GeographicItem.containing_sql(column_name, geographic_item_id, b)
      }.join(' or ')
      q = 'FALSE' if q.blank? # this will prevent the invocation of *ALL* of the GeographicItems, if there are
      # no GeographicItems in the request (see CollectingEvent.name_hash(types)).
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:enable Metrics/MethodLength

  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [String] geometry of WKT
  # @return [Scope]
  # a single WKT geometry is compared against column or columns (except geometry_collection) to find geographic_items
  # which are contained in the WKT
  def are_contained_in_wkt(column_name, geometry)
    column_name.downcase!
    # column_name = 'point'
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_wkt(column.to_s, geometry).pluck(:id).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten)
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_wkt("#{column}", geometry).pluck(:id).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten)
    else
      # column = points, geometry = square
      q = "ST_Contains(ST_GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geometry}'), #{column_name}::geometry)"
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  #    containing the items the shape of which is contained in the geographic_item[s] supplied.
  # @param column_name [String] can be any of DATA_TYPES, or 'any' to check against all types, 'any_poly' to check
  # against 'polygon' or 'multi_polygon', or 'any_line' to check against 'line_string' or 'multi_line_string'.
  #  CANNOT be 'geometry_collection'.
  # @param geographic_items [GeographicItem] Can be a single GeographicItem, or an array of GeographicItem.
  # @return [Scope]
  def is_contained_by(column_name, *geographic_items)
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.is_contained_by(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
        end
      }
      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))

    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
            part.push(GeographicItem.is_contained_by(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
          end
        end
      }
      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))

    else
      q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
        GeographicItem.reverse_containing_sql(column_name, geographic_item.to_param,
                                              geographic_item.geo_object_type)
      }.join(' or ')
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:enable Metrics/MethodLength

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def ordered_by_shortest_distance_from(column_name, geographic_item)
    if true # check_geo_params(column_name, geographic_item)
      select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
        .where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item).order('distance')
    else
      where('false')
    end
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def ordered_by_longest_distance_from(column_name, geographic_item)
    if true # check_geo_params(column_name, geographic_item)
      q = select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
        .where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item)
        .order('distance desc')
      q
    else
      where('false')
    end
  end

  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
  # @return [String]
  def select_distance_with_geo_object(column_name, geographic_item)
    select("*, ST_Distance(#{column_name}, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geographic_item.geo_object}')) as distance")
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def where_distance_greater_than_zero(column_name, geographic_item)
    where("#{column_name} is not null and ST_Distance(#{column_name}, " \
          "GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;#{geographic_item.geo_object}')) > 0")
  end

  # @param [GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  def not_including(geographic_items)
    where.not(id: geographic_items)
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   includes an 'is_valid' attribute (True/False) for the passed geographic_item.  Uses St_IsValid.
  # @param [RGeo object] geographic_item
  def with_is_valid_geometry_column(geographic_item)
    where(id: geographic_item.id).select("ST_IsValid(ST_AsBinary(#{geographic_item.geo_object_type})) is_valid")
  end

  #
  # Other
  #

  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id1
  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id2
  # @return [Float]
  def distance_between(geographic_item_id1, geographic_item_id2)
    q1 = "ST_Distance(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, " \
      "(#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id2)})) as distance"
    _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(
      :sanitize_sql_array, ['ST_Distance(?, (?)) as distance',
                            GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL,
                            select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id2)])
    GeographicItem.where(id: geographic_item_id1).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
  end

  # @param [RGeo::Point] point
  # @return [Hash]
  #   as per #inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy but for Rgeo point
  def point_inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy(point)
    GeographicItem.containing_point(point).order(cached_total_area: :ASC).limit(1).first&.inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy
  end

  # @param [String] type_name ('polygon', 'point', 'line' [, 'circle'])
  # @return [String] if type
  def eval_for_type(type_name)
    retval = 'GeographicItem'
    case type_name.upcase
    when 'POLYGON'
      retval += '::Polygon'
    when 'LINESTRING'
      retval += '::LineString'
    when 'POINT'
      retval += '::Point'
    when 'MULTIPOLYGON'
      retval += '::MultiPolygon'
    when 'MULTILINESTRING'
      retval += '::MultiLineString'
    when 'MULTIPOINT'
      retval += '::MultiPoint'
    else
      retval = nil
    end
    retval
  end

  # example, not used
  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @return [RGeo::Geographic object]
  def geometry_for(geographic_item_id)
    GeographicItem.select(GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry').find(geographic_item_id)['geometry']
  end

  # example, not used
  # @param [Integer, Array] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  def st_multi(*geographic_item_ids)
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
      "SELECT ST_Multi(ST_Collect(g.the_geom)) AS singlegeom
 FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DUMP(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql})).geom AS the_geom
    FROM geographic_items
    WHERE id IN (?))
  AS g;", geographic_item_ids.flatten
    )
  end
end # class << self

# @return [Hash]
#    a geographic_name_classification or empty Hash
# This is a quick approach that works only when
# the geographic_item is linked explicitly to a GeographicArea.
#
# !! Note that it is not impossible for a GeographicItem to be linked
# to > 1 GeographicArea, in that case we are assuming that all are
# equally refined, this might not be the case in the future because
# of how the GeographicArea gazetteer is indexed.
def quick_geographic_name_hierarchy
  geographic_areas.order(:id).each do |ga|
    h = ga.geographic_name_classification # not quick enough !!
    return h if h.present?
  end
  return  {}
end

# @return [Hash]
#   a geographic_name_classification (see GeographicArea) inferred by
# finding the smallest area containing this GeographicItem, in the most accurate gazetteer
# and using it to return country/state/county. See also the logic in
# filling in missing levels in GeographicArea.
def inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy
  if small_area = containing_geographic_areas
    .joins(:geographic_areas_geographic_items)
    .merge(GeographicAreasGeographicItem.ordered_by_data_origin)
    .ordered_by_area
    .limit(1)
    .first
  return small_area.geographic_name_classification
  else
    {}
  end
end

def geographic_name_hierarchy
  a = quick_geographic_name_hierarchy # quick; almost never the case, UI not setup to do this
  return a if a.present?
  inferred_geographic_name_hierarchy # slow
end

# @return [Scope]
#   the Geographic Areas that contain (gis) this geographic item
def containing_geographic_areas
  GeographicArea.joins(:geographic_items).includes(:geographic_area_type)
    .joins("JOIN (#{GeographicItem.containing(id).to_sql}) j on geographic_items.id = j.id")
end

# @return [Boolean]
#   whether stored shape is ST_IsValid
def valid_geometry?
  GeographicItem.with_is_valid_geometry_column(self).first['is_valid']
end

# @return [Array of latitude, longitude]
#    the lat, lon of the first point in the GeoItem, see subclass for #st_start_point
def start_point
  o = st_start_point
  [o.y, o.x]
end

# @return [Array]
#   the lat, long, as STRINGs for the centroid of this geographic item
#   Meh- this: https://postgis.net/docs/en/ST_MinimumBoundingRadius.html
def center_coords
  r = GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
    "Select split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}), " \
    "'D.DDDDDD'), ' ', 1) latitude, split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid" \
    "(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}), 'D.DDDDDD'), ' ', 2) " \
    "longitude from geographic_items where id = #{id};")[0]

  [r.latitude, r.longitude]
end

# @return [RGeo::Geographic::ProjectedPointImpl]
#    representing the centroid of this geographic item
def centroid
  # Gis::FACTORY.point(*center_coords.reverse)
  return geo_object if type == 'GeographicItem::Point'
  return Gis::FACTORY.parse_wkt(self.st_centroid)
end

# @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
# @return [Double] distance in meters (slower, more accurate)
def st_distance(geographic_item_id) # geo_object
  q1 = "ST_Distance((#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(id)}), " \
    "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)})) as d"
  _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['ST_Distance((?),(?)) as d',
                                                      GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(self.id),
                                                      GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)])
  deg = GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
  deg * Utilities::Geo::ONE_WEST
end

# @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
# @return [Double] distance in meters
# Like st_distance but works with changed and non persisted objects
def st_distance_to_geographic_item(geographic_item)
  unless !persisted? || changed?
    a = "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(id)})"
  else
    a = "ST_GeographyFromText('#{geo_object}')"
  end

  unless !geographic_item.persisted? || geographic_item.changed?
    b = "(#{GeographicItem.select_geography_sql(geographic_item.id)})"
  else
    b = "ST_GeographyFromText('#{geographic_item.geo_object}')"
  end

  ActiveRecord::Base.connection.select_value("SELECT ST_Distance(#{a}, #{b})")
end

alias_method :distance_to, :st_distance

# @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
# @return [Double] distance in meters (faster, less accurate)
def st_distance_spheroid(geographic_item_id)
  q1 = "ST_DistanceSpheroid((#{GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(id)})," \
    "(#{GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id)}),'#{Gis::SPHEROID}') as distance"
  _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array,
                                ['ST_DistanceSpheroid((?),(?),?) as distance',
                                 GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(id),
                                 GeographicItem.select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id),
                                 Gis::SPHEROID])
  # TODO: what is _q2?
  GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql(q1)).first
end

# @return [String]
#   a WKT POINT representing the centroid of the geographic item
def st_centroid
  GeographicItem.where(id: to_param).pluck(Arel.sql("ST_AsEWKT(ST_Centroid(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}))")).first.gsub(/SRID=\d*;/, '')
end

# @return [Integer]
#   the number of points in the geometry
def st_npoints
  GeographicItem.where(id:).pluck(Arel.sql("ST_NPoints(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as npoints")).first
end

# @return [Symbol]
#   the geo type (i.e. column like :point, :multipolygon).  References the first-found object,
# according to the list of DATA_TYPES, or nil
def geo_object_type
  if self.class.name == 'GeographicItem' # a proxy check for new records
    geo_type
  else
    self.class::SHAPE_COLUMN
  end
end

# !!TODO: migrate these to use native column calls

# @return [RGeo instance, nil]
#  the Rgeo shape (See http://rubydoc.info/github/dazuma/rgeo/RGeo/Feature)
def geo_object
  begin
    if r = geo_object_type # rubocop:disable Lint/AssignmentInCondition
      send(r)
    else
      false
    end
  rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry
    return nil # TODO: we need to render proper error for this!
  end
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def contains?(target_geo_object)
  return nil if target_geo_object.nil?
  self.geo_object.contains?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def within?(target_geo_object)
  self.geo_object.within?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object]
# @return [Boolean]
def intersects?(target_geo_object)
  self.geo_object.intersects?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object, Double]
# @return [Boolean]
def near(target_geo_object, distance)
  self.geo_object.unsafe_buffer(distance).contains?(target_geo_object)
end

# @param [geo_object, Double]
# @return [Boolean]
def far(target_geo_object, distance)
  !near(target_geo_object, distance)
end

# @return [GeoJSON hash]
#    via Rgeo apparently necessary for GeometryCollection
def rgeo_to_geo_json
  RGeo::GeoJSON.encode(geo_object).to_json
end

# @return [Hash]
#   in GeoJSON format
#   Computed via "raw" PostGIS (much faster). This
#   requires the geo_object_type and id.
#
def to_geo_json
  JSON.parse(
    GeographicItem.connection.select_one(
      "SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(#{geo_object_type}::geometry) a " \
      "FROM geographic_items WHERE id=#{id};")['a'])
end

# We don't need to serialize to/from JSON
def to_geo_json_string
  GeographicItem.connection.select_one(
    "SELECT ST_AsGeoJSON(#{geo_object_type}::geometry) a " \
    "FROM geographic_items WHERE id=#{id};")['a']
end

# @return [Hash]
#   the shape as a GeoJSON Feature with some item metadata
def to_geo_json_feature
  @geometry ||= to_geo_json
  {'type' => 'Feature',
   'geometry' => geometry,
   'properties' => {
     'geographic_item' => {
       'id' => id}
   }
  }
end

# @param value [String] like:
#   '{"type":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"Point","coordinates":[2.5,4.0]},"properties":{"color":"red"}}'
#
#   '{"type":"Feature","geometry":{"type":"Polygon","coordinates":"[[[-125.29394388198853, 48.584480409793],
#      [-67.11035013198853, 45.09937589848195],[-80.64550638198853, 25.01924647619111],[-117.55956888198853,
#      32.5591595028449],[-125.29394388198853, 48.584480409793]]]"},"properties":{}}'
#
#  '{"type":"Point","coordinates":[2.5,4.0]},"properties":{"color":"red"}}'
#
# @return [Boolean, RGeo object]
def shape=(value)

  if value.present?

    begin
      geom = RGeo::GeoJSON.decode(value, json_parser: :json, geo_factory: Gis::FACTORY)
    rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry => e
      errors.add(:base, "invalid geometry: #{e.to_s}")
      return
    end

    this_type = nil

    if geom.respond_to?(:geometry_type)
      this_type = geom.geometry_type.to_s
    elsif geom.respond_to?(:geometry)
      this_type = geom.geometry.geometry_type.to_s
    else
    end

    self.type = GeographicItem.eval_for_type(this_type) unless geom.nil?

    if type.blank?
      errors.add(:base, 'type is not set from shape')
      return
    end

    object = nil

    s = geom.respond_to?(:geometry) ? geom.geometry.to_s : geom.to_s

    begin
      object = Gis::FACTORY.parse_wkt(s)
    rescue RGeo::Error::InvalidGeometry
      errors.add(:self, 'Shape value is an Invalid Geometry')
    end

    write_attribute(this_type.underscore.to_sym, object)
    geom
  end
end

# @return [String]
def to_wkt
  #  10k  #<Benchmark::Tms:0x00007fb0dfd30fd0 @label="", @real=25.237487000005785, @cstime=0.0, @cutime=0.0, @stime=1.1704609999999995, @utime=5.507929999999988, @total=6.678390999999987>
  #  GeographicItem.select("ST_AsText( #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) wkt").where(id: id).first.wkt

  # 10k <Benchmark::Tms:0x00007fb0e02f7540 @label="", @real=21.619827999995323, @cstime=0.0, @cutime=0.0, @stime=0.8850890000000007, @utime=3.2958549999999605, @total=4.180943999999961>
  if a =  ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_AsText( #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} ) wkt from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first
    return a['wkt']
  else
    return nil
  end
end

# @return  [Float] in meters, calculated
# TODO: share with world
#    Geographic item 96862 (Cajamar in Brazil) is the only(?) record to fail using `false` (quicker) method of everything we tested
def area
  a = GeographicItem.where(id:).select("ST_Area(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, true) as area_in_meters").first['area_in_meters']
  a = nil if a.nan?
  a
end

# @return [Float, false]
#    the value in square meters of the interesecting area of this and another GeographicItem
def intersecting_area(geographic_item_id)
  a = GeographicItem.aliased_geographic_sql('a')
  b = GeographicItem.aliased_geographic_sql('b')

  c = GeographicItem.connection.execute(
    "SELECT ST_Area(ST_Intersection(#{a}, #{b})) as intersecting_area
      FROM geographic_items a, geographic_items b
      WHERE a.id = #{id} AND b.id = #{geographic_item_id};"
  ).first
  c && c['intersecting_area'].to_f
end

# TODO: This is bad, while internal use of ONE_WEST_MEAN is consistent it is in-accurate given the vast differences of radius vs. lat/long position.
# When we strike the error-polygon from radius we should remove this
#
# Use case is returning the radius from a circle we calculated via buffer for error-polygon creation.
def radius
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_MinimumBoundingRadius( ST_Transform(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}, 4326 )  ) AS radius from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['radius'].split(',').last.chop.to_f
  r = (r * Utilities::Geo::ONE_WEST_MEAN).to_i
end


# Convention is to store in PostGIS in CCW
# @return Array [Boolean]
#   false - cw
#   true - ccw (preferred), except cee donuts
def orientations
  if multi_polygon.present?
    ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(" \
         SELECT ST_IsPolygonCCW(a.geom) as is_ccw
            FROM ( SELECT b.id, (ST_Dump(p_geom)).geom AS geom
               FROM (SELECT id, multi_polygon::geometry AS p_geom FROM geographic_items where id = #{id}) AS b \
          ) AS a;").collect{|a| a['is_ccw']}
  elsif polygon.present?
    ApplicationRecord.connection.execute("SELECT ST_IsPolygonCCW(polygon::geometry) as is_ccw \
            FROM geographic_items where  id = #{id};").collect{|a| a['is_ccw']}
  else
    []
  end
end

# @return Boolean
#   looks at all orientations
#   if they follow the pattern [true, false, ... <all false>] then `true`, else `false`
# !! Does not confirm that shapes are nested !!
def is_basic_donut?
  a = orientations
  b = a.shift
  return false unless b
  a.uniq!
  a == [false]
end

def st_isvalid
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_IsValid(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql }) from  geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['st_isvalid']
end

def st_isvalidreason
  r = ApplicationRecord.connection.execute( "SELECT ST_IsValidReason(  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql }) from  geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{id}").first['st_isvalidreason']
end

# !! Unused. Doesn't check Geometry collection
def has_polygons?
  ['GeographicItem::MultiPolygon', 'GeographicItem::Polygon'].include?(self.type)
end

private

def align_winding
  if orientations.flatten.include?(false)
    case type
    when 'multi_polygon'
      ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(
        "UPDATE geographic_items set multi_polygon = ST_ForcePolygonCCW(multi_polygon::geometry) 
          WHERE id = #{self.id};"
       )
    when 'polygon'
     ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(
        "UPDATE geographic_items set polygon = ST_ForcePolygonCCW(polygon::geometry) 
          WHERE id = #{self.id};"
       )
    end     
  end
  true
end

# Crude debuging helper, write the shapes
# to a png
def self.debug_draw(geographic_item_ids = [])
  return false if geographic_item_ids.empty?

  sql = "SELECT ST_AsPNG(
     ST_AsRaster(
        (SELECT ST_Union(multi_polygon::geometry) from geographic_items where id IN (" + geographic_item_ids.join(',') + ")), 1920, 1080
    )
   ) png;"

  # ST_Buffer( multi_polygon::geometry, 0, 'join=bevel'),
  #     1920,
  #     1080)


  result = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.execute(sql).first['png']
  r = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.unescape_bytea(result)

  prefix = if geographic_item_ids.size > 10
             'multiple'
           else
             geographic_item_ids.join('_') + '_debug.draw.png'
           end

  n = prefix + '_debug.draw.png'

  # Open the file in binary write mode ("wb")
  File.open(n, 'wb') do |file|
    # Write the binary data to the file
    file.write(r)
  end
end

# def png

#   if ids = Otu.joins(:cached_map_items).first.cached_map_items.pluck(:geographic_item_id)

#     sql = "SELECT ST_AsPNG(
#    ST_AsRaster(
#        ST_Buffer( multi_polygon::geometry, 0, 'join=bevel'),
#            1024,
#            768)
#     ) png
#        from geographic_items where id IN (" + ids.join(',') + ');'

#     # hack, not the best way to unpack result
#     result = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.execute(sql).first['png']
#     r = ActiveRecord::Base.connection.unescape_bytea(result)

#     send_data r, filename: 'foo.png', type: 'imnage/png'

#   else
#     render json: {foo: false}
#   end
# end

def set_cached
  update_column(:cached_total_area, area)
end

# @return [Symbol]
#   returns the attribute (column name) containing data
#   nearly all methods should use #geo_object_type, not geo_type
def geo_type
  DATA_TYPES.each { |item|
    return item if send(item)
  }
  nil
end

# @return [Boolean, String] false if already set, or type to which it was set
def set_type_if_geography_present
  if type.blank?
    column = geo_type
    self.type = "GeographicItem::#{column.to_s.camelize}" if column
  end
end

# @param [RGeo::Point] point
# @return [Array] of a point
#   Longitude |, Latitude -
def point_to_a(point)
  data = []
  data.push(point.x, point.y)
  data
end

# @param [RGeo::Point] point
# @return [Hash] of a point
def point_to_hash(point)
  {points: [point_to_a(point)]}
end

# @param [RGeo::MultiPoint] multi_point
# @return [Array] of points
def multi_point_to_a(multi_point)
  data = []
  multi_point.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of points
def multi_point_to_hash(_multi_point)
  # when we encounter a multi_point type, we only stick the points into the array, NOT it's identity as a group
  {points: multi_point_to_a(multi_point)}
end

# @param [Reo::LineString] line_string
# @return [Array] of points in the line
def line_string_to_a(line_string)
  data = []
  line_string.points.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @param [Reo::LineString] line_string
# @return [Hash] of points in the line
def line_string_to_hash(line_string)
  {lines: [line_string_to_a(line_string)]}
end

# @param [RGeo::Polygon] polygon
# @return [Array] of points in the polygon (exterior_ring ONLY)
def polygon_to_a(polygon)
  # TODO: handle other parts of the polygon; i.e., the interior_rings (if they exist)
  data = []
  polygon.exterior_ring.points.each { |point|
    data.push([point.x, point.y])
  }
  data
end

# @param [RGeo::Polygon] polygon
# @return [Hash] of points in the polygon (exterior_ring ONLY)
def polygon_to_hash(polygon)
  {polygons: [polygon_to_a(polygon)]}
end

# @return [Array] of line_strings as arrays of points
# @param [RGeo::MultiLineString] multi_line_string
def multi_line_string_to_a(multi_line_string)
  data = []
  multi_line_string.each { |line_string|
    line_data = []
    line_string.points.each { |point|
      line_data.push([point.x, point.y])
    }
    data.push(line_data)
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of line_strings as hashes of points
def multi_line_string_to_hash(_multi_line_string)
  {lines: to_a}
end

# @param [RGeo::MultiPolygon] multi_polygon
# @return [Array] of arrays of points in the polygons (exterior_ring ONLY)
def multi_polygon_to_a(multi_polygon)
  data = []
  multi_polygon.each { |polygon|
    polygon_data = []
    polygon.exterior_ring.points.each { |point|
      polygon_data.push([point.x, point.y])
    }
    data.push(polygon_data)
  }
  data
end

# @return [Hash] of hashes of points in the polygons (exterior_ring ONLY)
def multi_polygon_to_hash(_multi_polygon)
  {polygons: to_a}
end

# @return [Boolean] iff there is one and only one shape column set
def some_data_is_provided
  data = []

  DATA_TYPES.each do |item|
    data.push(item) if send(item).present?
  end

  case data.count
  when 0
    errors.add(:base, 'No shape provided or provided shape is invalid')
  when 1
    return true
  else
    data.each do |object|
      errors.add(object, 'More than one shape type provided')
    end
  end
  true
end
end

#multi_pointRGeo::Geographic::ProjectedMultiPointImpl

Returns:

  • (RGeo::Geographic::ProjectedMultiPointImpl)


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# File 'app/models/geographic_item.rb', line 40

class GeographicItem < ApplicationRecord
  include Housekeeping::Users
  include Housekeeping::Timestamps
  include Shared::HasPapertrail
  include Shared::IsData
  include Shared::SharedAcrossProjects

  # @return [Hash, nil]
  #   An internal variable for use in super calls, holds a Hash in GeoJSON format (temporarily)
  attr_accessor :geometry

  # @return [Boolean, RGeo object]
  # @params value [Hash in GeoJSON format] ?!
  # TODO: WHY! boolean not nil, or object
  # Used to build geographic items from a shape [ of what class ] !?
  attr_accessor :shape

  # @return [Boolean]
  #   When true cached values are not built
  attr_accessor :no_cached

  DATA_TYPES = [
:point,
:line_string,
:polygon,
:multi_point,
:multi_line_string,
:multi_polygon,
:geometry_collection
  ].freeze

  GEOMETRY_SQL = Arel::Nodes::Case.new(arel_table[:type])
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPolygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Point').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::LineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::Polygon').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:polygon].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiLineString').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_line_string].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::MultiPoint').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:multi_point].as('geometry')]))
.when('GeographicItem::GeometryCollection').then(Arel::Nodes::NamedFunction.new('CAST', [arel_table[:geometry_collection].as('geometry')]))
.freeze

  GEOGRAPHY_SQL = "CASE geographic_items.type
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string
WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point
WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN geometry_collection
END".freeze

# ANTI_MERIDIAN = '0X0102000020E61000000200000000000000008066400000000000405640000000000080664000000000004056C0'
ANTI_MERIDIAN = 'LINESTRING (180 89.0, 180 -89)'.freeze

has_many :cached_map_items, inverse_of: :geographic_item

has_many :geographic_areas_geographic_items, dependent: :destroy, inverse_of: :geographic_item
has_many :geographic_areas, through: :geographic_areas_geographic_items
has_many :asserted_distributions, through: :geographic_areas
has_many :geographic_area_types, through: :geographic_areas
has_many :parent_geographic_areas, through: :geographic_areas, source: :parent

has_many :georeferences, inverse_of: :geographic_item
has_many :georeferences_through_error_geographic_item,
  class_name: 'Georeference', foreign_key: :error_geographic_item_id, inverse_of: :error_geographic_item
has_many :collecting_events_through_georeferences, through: :georeferences, source: :collecting_event
has_many :collecting_events_through_georeference_error_geographic_item,
  through: :georeferences_through_error_geographic_item, source: :collecting_event

# TODO: THIS IS NOT GOOD
before_validation :set_type_if_geography_present

validate :some_data_is_provided
validates :type, presence: true # not needed

scope :include_collecting_event, -> { includes(:collecting_events_through_georeferences) }
scope :geo_with_collecting_event, -> { joins(:collecting_events_through_georeferences) }
scope :err_with_collecting_event, -> { joins(:georeferences_through_error_geographic_item) }

after_save :set_cached, unless: Proc.new {|n| n.no_cached || errors.any? }
after_save :align_winding

class << self

  def aliased_geographic_sql(name = 'a')
    "CASE #{name}.type \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN #{name}.multi_polygon \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN #{name}.point \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN #{name}.line_string \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN #{name}.polygon \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN #{name}.multi_line_string \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN #{name}.multi_point \
     WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN #{name}.geometry_collection \
     END"
  end

  def st_union(geographic_item_scope)
    GeographicItem.select("ST_Union(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as collection")
      .where(id: geographic_item_scope.pluck(:id))
  end

  def st_collect(geographic_item_scope)
    GeographicItem.select("ST_Collect(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}) as collection")
      .where(id: geographic_item_scope.pluck(:id))
  end

  # @return [GeographicItem::ActiveRecord_Relation]
  # @params [Array] array of geographic area ids
  def default_by_geographic_area_ids(geographic_area_ids = [])
    GeographicItem.
      joins(:geographic_areas_geographic_items).
      merge(::GeographicAreasGeographicItem.default_geographic_item_data).
      where(geographic_areas_geographic_items: {geographic_area_id: geographic_area_ids})
  end

  # @param [String] wkt
  # @return [Boolean]
  #   whether or not the wtk intersects with the anti-meridian
  #   !! StrongParams security considerations
  def crosses_anti_meridian?(wkt)
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(
      ['SELECT ST_Intersects(ST_GeogFromText(?), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', wkt, ANTI_MERIDIAN]
    ).first.r
  end

  # @param [Integer] ids
  # @return [Boolean]
  #   whether or not any GeographicItem passed intersects the anti-meridian
  #   !! StrongParams security considerations
  #   This is our first line of defense against queries that define multiple shapes, one or
  #   more of which crosses the anti-meridian.  In this case the current TW strategy within the
  #   UI is to abandon the search, and prompt the user to refactor the query.
  def crosses_anti_meridian_by_id?(*ids)
    q1 = ["SELECT ST_Intersects((SELECT single_geometry FROM (#{GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(*ids)}) as " \
          'left_intersect), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', ANTI_MERIDIAN]
    _q2 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['SELECT ST_Intersects((SELECT single_geometry FROM (?) as ' \
                                                        'left_intersect), ST_GeogFromText(?)) as r;', GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(*ids), ANTI_MERIDIAN])
    GeographicItem.find_by_sql(q1).first.r
  end

  #
  # SQL fragments
  #

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL select statement that returns the *geometry* for the geographic_item with the specified id
  def select_geometry_sql(geographic_item_id)
    "SELECT #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = #{geographic_item_id}"
  end

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL select statement that returns the geography for the geographic_item with the specified id
  def select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)
    ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_for_conditions, [
      "SELECT #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql} from geographic_items where geographic_items.id = ?",
      geographic_item_id])
  end

  # @param [Symbol] choice
  # @return [String]
  #   a fragment returning either latitude or longitude columns
  def lat_long_sql(choice)
    return nil unless [:latitude, :longitude].include?(choice)
    f = "'D.DDDDDD'" # TODO: probably a constant somewhere
    v = (choice == :latitude ? 1 : 2)
    "CASE geographic_items.type
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::GeometryCollection' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid" \
  "(geometry_collection::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(ST_Centroid(line_string::geometry), " \
  "#{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_polygon::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(point::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(polygon::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_line_string::geometry), #{f} ), ' ', #{v})
  WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN split_part(ST_AsLatLonText(" \
  "ST_Centroid(multi_point::geometry), #{f}), ' ', #{v})
END as #{choice}"
  end

  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Integer] distance
  # @return [String]
  def within_radius_of_item_sql(geographic_item_id, distance)
    "ST_DWithin((#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}), (#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)}), #{distance})"
  end


  # @param [Integer] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Number] distance in meters to grow/shrink the shape (negative allowed)
  # @param [Number] distance (in meters) (positive only?!)
  # @return [String]
  def st_buffer_st_within(geographic_item_id, distance, buffer = 0)
    "ST_DWithin(
    ST_Buffer(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, #{buffer}),
    (#{select_geography_sql(geographic_item_id)}), #{distance}
   )"
  end


  # TODO: 3D is overkill here
  # @param [String] wkt
  # @param [Integer] distance (meters)
  # @return [String]
  # !! This is intersecting
  def intersecting_radius_of_wkt_sql(wkt, distance)
    "ST_DWithin((#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}), ST_Transform( ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', " \
      "4326), 4326), #{distance})"
  end

  # @param [String] wkt
  # @param [Integer] distance (meters)
  # @return [String]
  # !! This is fully covering
  def within_radius_of_wkt_sql(wkt, distance)
    "ST_Covers( ST_Buffer(ST_SetSRID( ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}'), 4326)::geography, #{distance}), (#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}))"
  end

  # @param [String, Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_Contains() function, returns
  #   all geographic items which are contained in the item supplied
  def containing_sql(target_column_name = nil, geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil? || target_column_name.nil?
    "ST_Contains(#{target_column_name}::geometry, (#{geometry_sql(geographic_item_id, source_column_name)}))"
  end

  # @param [String, Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_Contains(), returns
  #   all geographic_items which contain the supplied geographic_item
  def reverse_containing_sql(target_column_name = nil, geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil? || target_column_name.nil?
    "ST_Contains((#{geometry_sql(geographic_item_id, source_column_name)}), #{target_column_name}::geometry)"
  end

  # @param [Integer, String]
  # @return [String]
  #   a SQL fragment that represents the geometry of the geographic item specified (which has data in the
  # source_column_name, i.e. geo_object_type)
  def geometry_sql(geographic_item_id = nil, source_column_name = nil)
    return 'false' if geographic_item_id.nil? || source_column_name.nil?
    "select geom_alias_tbl.#{source_column_name}::geometry from geographic_items geom_alias_tbl " \
      "where geom_alias_tbl.id = #{geographic_item_id}"
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item
  # @return [String] of SQL
  def is_contained_by_sql(column_name, geographic_item)
    geo_id = geographic_item.id
    geo_type = geographic_item.geo_object_type
    template = '(ST_Contains((select geographic_items.%s::geometry from geographic_items where ' \
      'geographic_items.id = %d), %s::geometry))'
    retval = []
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          retval.push(template % [geo_type, geo_id, column])
        end
      }
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
            retval.push(template % [geo_type, geo_id, column])
          end
        end
      }
    else
      retval = template % [geo_type, geo_id, column_name]
    end
    retval = retval.join(' OR ') if retval.instance_of?(Array)
    retval
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #   a select query that returns a single geometry (column name 'single_geometry' for the collection of ids
  # provided via ST_Collect)
  def st_collect_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    geographic_item_ids.flatten!
    ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_for_conditions, [
      "SELECT ST_Collect(f.the_geom) AS single_geometry
 FROM (
    SELECT (ST_DUMP(#{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql})).geom as the_geom
    FROM geographic_items
    WHERE id in (?))
  AS f", geographic_item_ids])
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #    returns one or more geographic items combined as a single geometry in column 'single'
  def single_geometry_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    a = GeographicItem.st_collect_sql(geographic_item_ids)
    '(SELECT single.single_geometry FROM (' + a + ' ) AS single)'
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  #   returns a single geometry "column" (paren wrapped) as "single" for multiple geographic item ids, or the
  # geometry as 'geometry' for a single id
  def geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)
    geographic_item_ids.flatten! # *ALWAYS* reduce the pile to a single level of ids
    if geographic_item_ids.count == 1
      "(#{GeographicItem.geometry_for_sql(geographic_item_ids.first)})"
    else
      GeographicItem.single_geometry_sql(geographic_item_ids)
    end
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  def containing_where_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
      #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
       CASE geographic_items.type
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
      END)"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String]
  def containing_where_sql_geog(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
      #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
       CASE geographic_items.type
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geography
         WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geography
      END)"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] ids
  # @return [Array]
  #   If we detect that some query id has crossed the meridian, then loop through
  #   and "manually" build up a list of results.
  #   Should only be used if GeographicItem.crosses_anti_meridian_by_id? is true.
  #   Note that this does not return a Scope, so you can't chain it like contained_by?
  # TODO: test this
  def contained_by_with_antimeridian_check(*ids)
    ids.flatten! # make sure there is only one level of splat (*)
    results = []

    crossing_ids = []

    ids.each do |id|
      # push each which crosses
      crossing_ids.push(id) if GeographicItem.crosses_anti_meridian_by_id?(id)
    end

    non_crossing_ids = ids - crossing_ids
    results.push GeographicItem.contained_by(non_crossing_ids).to_a if non_crossing_ids.any?

    crossing_ids.each do |id|
      # [61666, 61661, 61659, 61654, 61639]
      q1 = ActiveRecord::Base.send(:sanitize_sql_array, ['SELECT ST_AsText((SELECT polygon FROM geographic_items ' \
                                                         'WHERE id = ?))', id])
      r = GeographicItem.where(
        # GeographicItem.contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(GeographicItem.find(id).geo_object.to_s)
        GeographicItem.contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(
          ApplicationRecord.connection.execute(q1).first['st_astext'])
      ).to_a
      results.push(r)
    end

    results.flatten.uniq
  end

  # @params [String] well known text
  # @return [String] the SQL fragment for the specific geometry type, shifted by longitude
  # Note: this routine is called when it is already known that the A argument crosses anti-meridian
  def contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(wkt)
    "ST_Contains(ST_ShiftLongitude(ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', 4326)), (
    CASE geographic_items.type
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_polygon::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(point::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(line_string::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(polygon::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_line_string::geometry)
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN ST_ShiftLongitude(multi_point::geometry)
    END
    )
  )"
  end

  # TODO: Remove the hard coded 4326 reference
  # @params [String] wkt
  # @return [String] SQL fragment limiting geographics items to those in this WKT
  def contained_by_wkt_sql(wkt)
    if crosses_anti_meridian?(wkt)
      retval = contained_by_wkt_shifted_sql(wkt)
    else
      retval = "ST_Contains(ST_GeomFromText('#{wkt}', 4326), (
    CASE geographic_items.type
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
       WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
    END
    )
  )"
    end
    retval
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String] sql for contained_by via ST_ContainsProperly
  # Note: Can not use GEOMETRY_SQL because geometry_collection is not supported in ST_ContainsProperly
  # Note: !! If the target GeographicItem#id crosses the anti-meridian then you may/will get unexpected results.
  def contained_by_where_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    "ST_Contains(
    #{GeographicItem.geometry_sql2(*geographic_item_ids)},
    CASE geographic_items.type
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPolygon' THEN multi_polygon::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::Point' THEN point::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::LineString' THEN line_string::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::Polygon' THEN polygon::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiLineString' THEN multi_line_string::geometry
      WHEN 'GeographicItem::MultiPoint' THEN multi_point::geometry
    END)"
  end

  # @param [RGeo:Point] rgeo_point
  # @return [String] sql for containing via ST_CoveredBy
  # TODO: Remove the hard coded 4326 reference
  # TODO: should this be wkt_point instead of rgeo_point?
  def containing_where_for_point_sql(rgeo_point)
    "ST_CoveredBy(
  ST_GeomFromText('#{rgeo_point}', 4326),
  #{GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql}
 )"
  end

  # @param [Interger] geographic_item_id
  # @return [String] SQL for geometries
  # example, not used
  def geometry_for_sql(geographic_item_id)
    'SELECT ' + GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry FROM geographic_items WHERE id = ' \
      "#{geographic_item_id} LIMIT 1"
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [String] SQL for geometries
  # example, not used
  def geometry_for_collection_sql(*geographic_item_ids)
    'SELECT ' + GeographicItem::GEOMETRY_SQL.to_sql + ' AS geometry FROM geographic_items WHERE id IN ' \
      "( #{geographic_item_ids.join(',')} )"
  end

  #
  # Scopes
  #

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items containing these collective geographic_item ids, not including self
  def containing(*geographic_item_ids)
    where(GeographicItem.containing_where_sql(geographic_item_ids)).not_ids(*geographic_item_ids)
  end

  # @param [Interger, Array of Integer] geographic_item_ids
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items contained by any of these geographic_item ids, not including self
  # (works via ST_ContainsProperly)
  def contained_by(*geographic_item_ids)
    where(GeographicItem.contained_by_where_sql(geographic_item_ids))
  end

  # @param [RGeo::Point] rgeo_point
  # @return [Scope]
  #    the geographic items containing this point
  # TODO: should be containing_wkt ?
  def containing_point(rgeo_point)
    where(GeographicItem.containing_where_for_point_sql(rgeo_point))
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   adds an area_in_meters field, with meters
  def with_area
    select("ST_Area(#{GeographicItem::GEOGRAPHY_SQL}, false) as area_in_meters")
  end

  # return [Scope]
  #   A scope that limits the result to those GeographicItems that have a collecting event
  #   through either the geographic_item or the error_geographic_item
  #
  # A raw SQL join approach for comparison
  #
  # GeographicItem.joins('LEFT JOIN georeferences g1 ON geographic_items.id = g1.geographic_item_id').
  #   joins('LEFT JOIN georeferences g2 ON geographic_items.id = g2.error_geographic_item_id').
  #   where("(g1.geographic_item_id IS NOT NULL OR g2.error_geographic_item_id IS NOT NULL)").uniq

  # @return [Scope] GeographicItem
  # This uses an Arel table approach, this is ultimately more decomposable if we need. Of use:
  #  http://danshultz.github.io/talks/mastering_activerecord_arel  <- best
  #  https://github.com/rails/arel
  #  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4500629/use-arel-for-a-nested-set-join-query-and-convert-to-activerecordrelation
  #  http://rdoc.info/github/rails/arel/Arel/SelectManager
  #  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7976358/activerecord-arel-or-condition
  #
  def with_collecting_event_through_georeferences
    geographic_items = GeographicItem.arel_table
    georeferences = Georeference.arel_table
    g1 = georeferences.alias('a')
    g2 = georeferences.alias('b')

    c = geographic_items.join(g1, Arel::Nodes::OuterJoin).on(geographic_items[:id].eq(g1[:geographic_item_id]))
      .join(g2, Arel::Nodes::OuterJoin).on(geographic_items[:id].eq(g2[:error_geographic_item_id]))

    GeographicItem.joins(# turn the Arel back into scope
                         c.join_sources # translate the Arel join to a join hash(?)
                        ).where(
                          g1[:id].not_eq(nil).or(g2[:id].not_eq(nil)) # returns a Arel::Nodes::Grouping
                        ).distinct
  end

  # @return [Scope] include a 'latitude' column
  def with_latitude
    select(lat_long_sql(:latitude))
  end

  # @return [Scope] include a 'longitude' column
  def with_longitude
    select(lat_long_sql(:longitude))
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItems]
  # @return [Scope]
  def intersecting(column_name, *geographic_items)
    if column_name.downcase == 'any'
      pieces = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        pieces.push(GeographicItem.intersecting(column.to_s, geographic_items).to_a)
      }

      # @TODO change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct

      GeographicItem.where(id: pieces.flatten.map(&:id))
    else
      q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
        "ST_Intersects(#{column_name}, '#{geographic_item.geo_object}'    )" # seems like we want this: http://danshultz.github.io/talks/mastering_activerecord_arel/#/15/2
      }.join(' or ')

      where(q)
    end
  end

  # @param [GeographicItem#id] geographic_item_id
  # @param [Float] distance in meters ?!?!
  # @return [ActiveRecord::Relation]
  # !! should be distance, not radius?!
  def within_radius_of_item(geographic_item_id, distance)
    where(within_radius_of_item_sql(geographic_item_id, distance))
  end

  # @param [String, GeographicItem]
  # @return [Scope]
  #   a SQL fragment for ST_DISJOINT, specifies all geographic_items that have data in column_name
  #   that are disjoint from the passed geographic_items
  def disjoint_from(column_name, *geographic_items)
    q = geographic_items.flatten.collect { |geographic_item|
      "ST_DISJOINT(#{column_name}::geometry, (#{geometry_sql(geographic_item.to_param,
                                                         geographic_item.geo_object_type)}))"
    }.join(' and ')

    where(q)
  end

  # @return [Scope]
  #   see are_contained_in_item_by_id
  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [GeographicItem, Array] geographic_items
  def are_contained_in_item(column_name, *geographic_items)
    are_contained_in_item_by_id(column_name, geographic_items.flatten.map(&:id))
  end

  # rubocop:disable Metrics/MethodLength
  # @param [String] column_name to search
  # @param [GeographicItem] geographic_item_ids or array of geographic_item_ids to be tested.
  # @return [Scope] of GeographicItems
  #
  # If this scope is given an Array of GeographicItems as a second parameter,
  # it will return the 'OR' of each of the objects against the table.
  # SELECT COUNT(*) FROM "geographic_items"
  #        WHERE (ST_Contains(polygon::geometry, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;POINT (0.0 0.0 0.0)'))
  #               OR ST_Contains(polygon::geometry, GeomFromEWKT('srid=4326;POINT (-9.8 5.0 0.0)')))
  #
  def are_contained_in_item_by_id(column_name, *geographic_item_ids) # = containing
    geographic_item_ids.flatten! # in case there is a array of arrays, or multiple objects
    column_name.downcase!
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_item_by_id(column.to_s, geographic_item_ids).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))
    when 'any_poly', 'any_line'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        if column.to_s.index(column_name.gsub('any_', ''))
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_item_by_id("#{column}", geographic_item_ids).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part.flatten.map(&:id))
    else
      q = geographic_item_ids.flatten.collect { |geographic_item_id|
        # discover the item types, and convert type to database type for 'multi_'
        b = GeographicItem.where(id: geographic_item_id)
          .pluck(:type)[0].split(':')[2].downcase.gsub('lti', 'lti_')
        # a = GeographicItem.find(geographic_item_id).geo_object_type
        GeographicItem.containing_sql(column_name, geographic_item_id, b)
      }.join(' or ')
      q = 'FALSE' if q.blank? # this will prevent the invocation of *ALL* of the GeographicItems, if there are
      # no GeographicItems in the request (see CollectingEvent.name_hash(types)).
      where(q) # .not_including(geographic_items)
    end
  end

  # rubocop:enable Metrics/MethodLength

  # @param [String] column_name
  # @param [String] geometry of WKT
  # @return [Scope]
  # a single WKT geometry is compared against column or columns (except geometry_collection) to find geographic_items
  # which are contained in the WKT
  def are_contained_in_wkt(column_name, geometry)
    column_name.downcase!
    # column_name = 'point'
    case column_name
    when 'any'
      part = []
      DATA_TYPES.each { |column|
        unless column == :geometry_collection
          part.push(GeographicItem.are_contained_in_wkt(column.to_s, geometry).pluck(:id).to_a)
        end
      }
      # TODO: change 'id in (?)' to some other sql construct
      GeographicItem.where(id: part